Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Corporation Tech will face many security risks with their current network. The user domain is the single most vulnerable part of any network and as such poses the most obvious security risk. To mitigate risks involving the users is to implement policies and training to educate the user on proper use and security best practices. By educating the user on security practices such as secure passwords, safe web surfing, and securing their workstations, many potential attacks can be avoided. Policies and training are also necessary because they can be used as evidence when taking administrative action against a user or intruder in the event the system or data information is compromised. Laptops and workstations have their own set of security risks associated with them. They are vulnerable to being compromised by malware, spyware, or even hackers that take advantage of certain exploits. Laptops, workstations and mobile devices are susceptible to malicious software attacks, theft or loss. Viruses and malware can affect these devices and are usually acquired through contaminated email attachments and hyperlinks that redirect the user to exploited web sites or are transferred through USB storage devices. Viruses and malware can also be acquired by downloading infected files or programs that are designed by hackers. Because of the need to protect systems against threats, all workstations and laptops should be secured with antivirus and firewall software and updated and patched on a regular basis to fix vulnerabilities with the software that hackers may exploit. Since the laptops are mobile by nature they are at risk of being stolen along with all of the data saved on their hard drives. The best security method for this would be to encrypt the hard drives on the laptops and where feasible only store sensitive data on corporate servers and allow authorized userÃ remote access to the data via SSHVPN sessions. Physical security or lack thereof also poses a huge risk; if an attacker has physical access to your equipment they do not actually need your log in credentials to access data. Attackers could boot your systems up on a live CD and compromise your information without leaving any trace in the logs other than a restart. Even if an attacker has a narrow window for physical access to your systems, they can steal the hardware and gain access to the data from it at their convenience. Secure all removable equipment is locked storage locations with security controls such as cameras and biometric access devices. Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks are a major concern when it comes to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s servers; this is done when a botnet sends an overwhelming amount of requests to the servers until they shut down. The best method to deal with this is to install security hardware or software that can detect these kinds of attacks as they are beginning to take place and filter that traffic out. The hardware is often very effective but also can be very expensive which can be a whole different issue but if you have the funding available I would recommend purchasing the hardware. SQL injections are one of the most common attacks on web based applications, these attacks occur when an attacker inserts a SQL statement that is not authorized through a SQL data channel such as the login screen. This best way to mitigate this risk is to implement string checking for special SQL characters or install software to check the web application for injection vulnerabilities. The software may cost a little money but it will help to prevent unauthorized access to information in your database.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Frederick Douglass spoke to Washington, DC in 1876: Ã¢â¬Å"We must either have all the rights of American citizens, or we must be exterminated, for we can never again be slavesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Foner, 1969, p. 320, as cited in Ballard, 2004, p. 53). This statement concretizes the inhumanity of slavery; its only equal is death. Douglass was born as a slave in Talbot County, Maryland. It was 1818 and slavery already existed for two hundred years in the United States (U. S. ). It took Douglass twenty years, before he escaped slavery. Before his escape, Douglass surreptitiously learned to read and write, and he soon rose as one of the most eloquent orators of the abolitionists. Using speech premeditated to distress, educate, and sometimes infuriate, Frederick Douglass encouraged the abolitionist movement. Douglass used his speeches to distress people about their prejudice, so that they would be aware of its inequitable and dangerous outcomes. When people were distressed of the realities and results of slavery, they would be more attracted by the principles and goals of the abolitionists. Douglass argued that slavery produces no benefits for the society. Slavery only leads to ignorance among blacks, which both negatively affects them and the whites. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Church and Prejudice,Ã¢â¬ Douglass asserted: Ã¢â¬Å"You degrade us, and then ask why we are degradedÃ¢â¬âyou shut our mouths, and then ask why we donÃ¢â¬â¢t speakÃ¢â¬âyou close our colleges and seminaries against us, and then ask why we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know more. Ã¢â¬ The blacks were disadvantaged by unawareness, while the whites were deprived of intellectual forces that the black people could have provided. In his speeches, Douglass further aimed to speak to both whites and blacks, so that they could feel slaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s demeaning consequences. It was his way of using literacy to distribute power among the black people, without disempowering the whites. Lisa Sisco said that Douglass defined literacy as Ã¢â¬Å"shiftingÃ¢â¬ as he showed an Ã¢â¬Å"understanding of literacy as a system of self-representationÃ¢â¬ ¦ and as an avenue for political representation as he attempts to speak and write for an oppressed people without alienating his white readershipÃ¢â¬ (p. 213 as cited in Ryden, 2005, p. 7). Slavery also compounds prejudice that would have marred a critical victory for the nation during the American Civil War (1861-1865). Douglass criticized how the American government would even imagine being a bigot in times of need, by not recruiting blacks as soldiers. He asked the President of the United States: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦if this dark and terrible hour of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s extremity is a time for consulting a mere vulgar and unnatural prejudice? Ã¢â¬ Douglass spoke eloquently about how the blacks had helped the whites to rebel against the government, and so there should be no reason that the government would not employ black people to be soldiers of the state: Ã¢â¬Å"Rising above vulgar prejudice, the slaveholding rebel accepts the aid of the black man as readily as that of any other. If a bad cause can do this, why should a good cause be less wisely conducted? Ã¢â¬ He also made a compelling symbolism for a state fighting without the aid of the blacks: Ã¢â¬Å"Men in earnest donÃ¢â¬â¢t fight with one hand, when they might fight with two, and a man drowning would not refuse to be saved even by a colored hand. Ã¢â¬ Through this speech, Douglass distressed the audience into thinking that slavery does not make any sense at all, and only its abolition can protect the state from another secessionist movement and other threats to national security and peace. Douglass wanted to educate people about the grave failings of slavery through his speeches- slavery reduces people to beasts with no free will or self-control (DeLombard, 2001). If slavery was this immoral, Douglass could compel people to join the abolitionist movement. Slavery turns human beings into creatures of violence or submission, through a dialectical process embedded in the master-slave relationship. An article compared DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of slavery to HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s: Hegel Ã¢â¬Å"knew about real slaves revolting against real masters, and he elaborated his dialectic of lordship and bondage deliberately within this contemporary contextÃ¢â¬ (Buck-Morss, 2000, p. 844 as cited in Kohn, 2005, p. 498). DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ speeches related the dialectical impacts of slavery to all parties involved. First, slavery dehumanizes slaves. Douglass described the horrendous experiences of slaves under the white man. The verbal and physical abuse could only fit animals. These experiences of the slaves underlined the inhumanity of slavery. Second, Douglass argued that slavery dehumanizes masters as well. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Church and Prejudice,Ã¢â¬ he provided a fitting example of a slaveholder who acted like a vicious animal. Douglass said that there was a class leader master of the Methodist Church, who preached about deliverance and liberty. However, he also lashed DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ cousin through the same thumbs that prayed, while using the words of the Bible to rationalize his illogical behavior: Ã¢â¬Å"He that knoweth his masterÃ¢â¬â¢s will, and doeth it not, shall be beaten with many stripes! Ã¢â¬ Douglass also educated people about the ills of prejudice on the protection of civil rights and liberties. In Ã¢â¬Å"What the Black Man Wants,Ã¢â¬ Douglass explained that black people have suffrage rights, simply because as human beings they do: Ã¢â¬Å"We want it because it is our right, first of all. No class of men can, without insulting their own nature, be content with any deprivation of their rights. Ã¢â¬ By asserting these rights, Douglass motivated people to believe that all human beings have human rights, so they would support the civil rights and freedoms that the abolitionist movement fought for. Douglass used his speeches to infuriate people into action, into destroying every form and face of slavery. In the speech Ã¢â¬Å"The Church and Prejudice,Ã¢â¬ Douglass narrated his experiences of religious bigotry: Ã¢â¬Å"[A minister looked to the door, where the blacks were and breathed heavily] Come up, colored friends, come up! for you know God is no respecter of persons! Ã¢â¬ This is an example of a speech that enraged people to question the sanity of slavery, when even Ã¢â¬Å"men of the altarÃ¢â¬ acted like beasts. This speech also uses humor to depict the dark comedy of slavery (Ganter, 2003). How can God differentiate between colored and white people? They are His children, are they not? Douglass also infuriated people by illustrating the bleakness of slavery and its different forms. In Ã¢â¬Å"What the black man wants,Ã¢â¬ Douglass defended the right of the colored people to choose employment: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦when any individual or combination of individuals undertakes to decide for any man when he shall work, where he shall work, at what he shall work, and for what he shall work,Ã¢â¬ it is still a form of slavery. By underlining how the government and white people preserved slavery even after the Declaration of Independence, Douglass enraged people to eradicate slavery. Douglass also incensed the people in his Fourth of July speech delivered in Rochester on July 5, 1852, where he assaulted the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act. David W. Blight stressed that the attack came with Douglass repetitions of a harmless word, yours (p. 75 as cited in Ramsey, 2007, p. 29). Douglass said: Ã¢â¬Å"This, for the purpose of this celebration, is the Fourth of July. It is the birthday of your National Independence, and of your political freedom. Ã¢â¬ The word Ã¢â¬Å"yourÃ¢â¬ aimed to Ã¢â¬Å"alienate his audience as America has alienated himÃ¢â¬ (Ramsey, 2007, p. 29). Douglass aggravated listeners by enunciating that there was no real independence, only social exclusion and neglect: Ã¢â¬Å"This Fourth of July is yours, not mine. You may rejoice, I must mourn. Ã¢â¬ DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ rhetorical tactic meant to aggressively plead, by transferring the feeling of how the nation had abandoned him to listeners, so that they too would feel how difficult and iniquitous it was to be Ã¢â¬Å"orphanedÃ¢â¬ (Ramsey, 2007, p. 29; Waymer& Heath, 2007). His ending for speech emphasized his anger and resentment. He asked people to find another place that had been as vicious as the U. S. in upturning civil liberties and freedoms: Ã¢â¬Å"for revolting barbarity and shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival. Ã¢â¬ This speech angered people to feel that racism brutally orphaned the whole society, and it was time to abolish slavery and its emerging forms. Douglass used the power of the spoken word to distress, educate, and sometimes infuriate, so that people would be persuaded to join the abolitionist movement. His speeches aroused emotions and intellectual understanding, which maximize logos and pathos as rhetorical strategies. By combining these strategies, Douglass could reach out to as many hearts and minds as possible- in either side of the color line. His earnest aim was to change attitudes and behavior toward the colored race and the idea of freedom and humanity. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ speeches have effectively expressed his core vision of society, a society of free and equal whites and blacks. References Ballard, B. J. (2004). Frederick Douglass and the ideology of resistance. Critical Review of International Social & Political Philosophy, 7 (4), 51-75. DeLombard, J. (2001). Ã¢â¬ËEye-witness to the crueltyÃ¢â¬â¢: Southern violence and northern testimony in Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s American Literature, 73 (2), 245-275. Douglass, F. (1841). The church and prejudice. Retrieved from http://www. frederickdouglass. org/speeches/ _______. (1852). Ã¢â¬Å"What to the slave is the 4th of July? Ã¢â¬ Retrieved from http://www. freemaninstitute. com/douglass. htm _______. (1861). Fighting rebels with only one hand. Retrieved from http://www. frederickdouglass. org/speeches/ _______. (1865). What the black man wants. Retrieved from http://www. frederickdouglass. org/speeches/ Ganter, G. (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"He made us laugh someÃ¢â¬ : Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s humor. African American Review, 37 (4), 535-552. Kohn, M. (2005). Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s master-slave dialectic. Journal of Politics, 67 (2), 497-514. Ramsey, W. M. (2007). Frederick Douglass, Southerner. Southern Literary Journal, 40 (1), 19-38. Ryden, W. (2005). Conflicted literacy: Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s critical model. Journal of Basic Writing, 24 (1), 4-23. Waymer, D. & Heath, R. (2007). Non-profit activist public relations and the paradox of the positive: A case study of Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Fourth of July Address. Ã¢â¬ National Communication Association, Conference, 1-39.
Monday, July 29, 2019
The Origin of the Universe - Research Paper Example Not only is it difficult to figure out how a whole universe could appear from nothing, but also no plausible explanation for the mechanism of the explosion itself springs to mind. The only known force in nature capable of affecting the universe as a whole is gravity. Gravity is, however, an attractive force, whereas the explosion requires a repulsive force. The mystery of the explosion lies in the first fraction of a second of the life of the universe. At such early times, the universe was in a state of incredibly high temperature and density, a situation so foreign to laboratory conditions that it is impossible to extrapolate known physics to that realm. The cause of the explosion is shrouded in the extreme conditions of the very early universe. For a while cosmology treated the existence of the universe as a given and concentrated on the consequences of the explosion rather than its cause. In the course of the scientific step-by-step reconstruction of the chronology of the universe , a number of puzzling paradoxes surfaced, of which two are of interest here. The first deals with the strength of the explosion. The push of the Bang was exquisitely well fine-tuned, allowing for the existence of a universe with galaxies, stars, planets, and life. Any other push would have meant either a structureless universe or a universe collapsing back onto itself after a brief existence. Why was the Bang so well engineered? The second paradox deals with the large-scale properties of the universe. The extreme large-scale smoothness of the temperature and of the density of matter cannot be explained by the standard Big Bang model. No known physical process can account for it. What is the origin of this conspiracy? Is our universe very peculiar, that is, did it just start this way by sheer luck -- in the scientific jargon, with very special initial conditions -- or are there mechanisms that can account for the fine-tuned push of the explosion and for the smoothness of the univers e? Two diametrically opposite schools of thought have addressed these paradoxes. The proponents of the so-called anthropic principle state that if the universe were not so fine-tuned, there could be no life in it, and we humans would not be there to witness it. Although this statement is correct, it does not attempt to resolve the paradoxes in terms of physical mechanisms, but relegates them to the status of special initial conditions. In other words, that is the way the universe started because if it had not, we would not be there to witness it. The other school of thought has refused to accept special initial conditions but rather has searched for mechanisms that could account for the observed peculiarities. It is the purpose of this essay to present and to discuss some of the latest models advanced by the second school. The Big Bang When Einstein applied his newly created theory of General Relativity to the universe, he discovered to his dismay that the universe was not static as everybody, including himself, liked to believe at that time. His universe was either contracting or expanding. Rather than exploring the consequences of his findings, Einstein introduced an ad-hoc term into his equation that he called the cosmological term. The cosmological ter
Sunday, July 28, 2019
LOreals Garnier Nutritioniste - Essay Example LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal is a French cosmetics company engaged in the production and marketing of a range of perfume, make-up, hair and skin care products. The company operates in over 130 countries, though primarily in Europe and in North America. It markets a total of 19 global brands in different markets in form of three major categories which are: Cosmetics, The Body Cosmetics have four segments namely professional products, consumer products, luxury products and active cosmetics. Consumer products are defined as the segment that sells products through mass-market retailing channels such as supermarkets. Garnier is another example considered a consumer product.A few other brands of LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal are LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Paris, Maybelline, Redken, Lancome, SoftSheen Carson, Ralph Lauren, Giorgio Armani, Viktor, and Rolf. LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal has a strong brand portfolio resulting in not only steady revenues and profits but a competitive advantage in the marketplace. However, the global cosmetics busin ess is intensely competitive with companies vying for market shares. In some instances, increased competition may result in price reductions, reduced profit margins and loss of market share. Its mission is to help men and women around the world to realize that aspiration and express their individual personalities to the full. As a company that believes in good corporate citizenship, LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal is keen to contribute to projects that serve the wider community and that reflect the values it has upheld for almost a century.
Cross-cultural barriers in marketing critique - Article Example marketing I think the most affected part is communication and business leaders need to be prepared to deal with communication in cross cultural marketing (Burnett 1991). The research objectives include finding out what we know on cross-cultural marketing. What are the cultural differences that are barriers to marketing? The article by Simona Popovici is on what we know about cross-cultural marketing. The author focuses on the issues in cross-cultural marketing. He notes that the markets are influenced by cultures and traditions that tend to act as barriers to marketing (Popovici, 2011). The article is valid since the claims that the author has made are reasonable in the theoretical context. When the author claims that different communities have different habits and traditions that form their culture he is right (Pozehl 2014). In the society there is always what guides the people and this is what forms the culture. It is also true that in the business world, the businesses get offers from different communities and thus they have to interact with different cultures. The article stands up to scrutiny because the evidence used shows that the information given is relevant. There is no argument against the findings that the author has discussed (Navarro 2014). The study has been carried out from different cultural borders that have different experiences in marketing. The data that has been used is up to date because the author has used recent works from different researchers who have studied cross-cultural marketing. He has used other well-known researchers to support hi s ideas and findings (Bider 2009). The evidence measures the theoretical concepts that are being analyzed (Bala 2013). The theoretical concepts being analyzed in the article include the barriers that are faced in cross- cultural marketing. The article starts by reviewing the implementation of cross-cultural marketing and analyses the barriers that are faced in implementation (Bollen 2011). The author
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Business Excellence Following The Example of Dell Inc - Essay Example After successfully doing business in the global markets for almost a decade, Dell began facing challenges in terms of competition, rapidly losing its market share and witnessing a reduction in its customer bases (Paul & et. al., 2007). Furthermore, the company was losing its market share in all the segments, namely, desktops, servers and notebooks during the same year to its major competitors. Notably, the major factors that led to the declining market share of Dell from all segments can be identified as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on its traditional business model lacking in terms of innovation and transformation. Due to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s resistance to change in the global competitive market, other players in this industry such as HP and Lenovo emerged as the new leaders. They focussed on the emerging markets and segments such as Laptops, whereas Dell with a market share of 4.2% ranked eighth among other manufacturers (Paul & et. al., 2007). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern era, the processor rather the conception of change is attributed to the only continuous and inevitable phenomenon of the business world. Due to the incessant changes occurring in the external business environment, businesses are becoming increasingly swayed to implement strategic changes in their business processes. It is in this context that due to the ongoing changes in the global business environment, business entities are forced to alter their operational vision, goals and methodologies too often causing the risk of unplanned and chaotic changes in the working process which in turn are quite likely to give rise to perplexity within the human resources and thus lead towards a greater disruption in the overall operational functions of the organisation.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Quality Data Collection - Essay Example Lack of proper data collection strategies results in wastage of hospital and patients resources since some results done are insignificant while others are annihilated. This paper focuses on data collection tools in emergency departments for blood culturing and the tools used in critical value reporting. The paper also elucidates on how the tools operate and compares how the tools operate. Improvement in data collection is vital for apposite analysis, diagnosis, treatment, and running of health amenities. Patience in the emergency department is often febrile and thus blood cultures are often obtained devoid of following the guidelines. However, most blood cultures ordered from the emergency departments are rarely utilized in management of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health. They thus end up being a source of unnecessary costs to the patients as well as the hospital. Another factor that declines the services of most community hospitals is excessive delays in defining and reporting of critical value results. Critical laboratory values have imperative significance on determining prompt treatment or actions that health provider ought to undertake. Most decisions and patient diagnosis depend on analysis of laboratory reports thus improvement in organization of laboratory services can improve on service provision. It is therefore vital to improve on timelines of reporting critical values (Tintinalli, et al, 2004). Blood Culture Contamination Rate in the Emergency Department Blood cultures are crucial in detecting conditions such as sepsis in the emergency departments. However, various researches show that most hospitals do not use blood culture results efficiently in clinical management of patients. The main problem in blood culturing is the inability to differentiate between contaminated cultures with true bacteraemia (Hall, & Lyman, 2006). To reduce errors and increase utilization of blood culture results, it is important to improve on tools used in monitoring performance information. It is recommendable that culture be collected only when clinically required. It is also important to use proper sampling techniques to prevent contamination. Tools used in blood culturing in the emergency department include culture bottle and needles. Enhanced collection of uncontaminated blood cultures is vital and can be done by proper disinfection of surfaces before drawing blood samples as well as using sterilized culture bottles. Use of surgical needles for blood sampling leads to contamination especially if proper sterilization is not done on the patients skin (Tintinalli, et al, 2004). Proper management of the data obtained after blood culturing is fundamental in improving the significance of the samples in management of emergencies. Another tool used to collect blood culture in the emergency department is automated blood culture technology that is capable of differentiating between positive and negative culture (Tintinalli, et al, 2004; Hall & Lyman, 2006). Crit ical Value Reporting Clinical value reporting provides mechanism for determining and reporting critical laboratory reports requiring urgent response. Critical values are determined differently by different hospitals with most choosing to use published values. Others make use of non-laboratory medical staff advice while others use inter-laboratory comparison, manufacturer proposals, or conduct internal studies to come up with their own
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Frankenstein - Essay Example The question that begs to be answered nowÃ¢â¬âwith multiple narrators telling the story and with each narration being integrated into anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s storyÃ¢â¬âis which one is to be believed? Although the story remains the same when it comes to the main points of the story, only with varying emotions and perspectives, the credibility of the narrator is still in question as it leads to different feelings and judgments that the reader will make after reading the story. In reading the story, I can see that each of the main narratorsÃ¢â¬âFrankenstein, Walton and the MonsterÃ¢â¬âpresented some evidence to validate the truth of their stories. The Monster presented his own set of proofs to Frankenstein, letters between Felix and Safie, stating to Frankenstein: Ã¢â¬Å"Before I depart I will give them to you; they will prove the truth of my taleÃ¢â¬ (Wollstonecraft 146). However, it can be refuted that the Monster may have just found these letters somewhere and he just used them to tell a convincing tale of woe that will persuade Frankenstein to create a mate for him. Still, the fact that he has become so learned and eloquent in such a short timeÃ¢â¬âas short a time as can be expected of a Ã¢â¬Å"newbornÃ¢â¬ creature to learn the language and skills the creature has acquiredÃ¢â¬âmay be construed as evidence enough of his tale. But then again, for a creature endowed with this innate intelligence, I believe it can also be said that he may have just fabricated everything and killed William with the cunning plan of making Frankenstein submit to his request in order to protect his other family members from the monster he has created. To illustrate the MonsterÃ¢â¬â¢s innate intelligence or cunning, when he began his story, he admitted the confusion he felt upon being born into the world; yet when he recounts the story of the first time he felt hunger and thirst, he immediately foraged for berries and drank the water from the brook, which raises the question of how he knew that berries are to be
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Peer Review - Article Example The writer mentioned several cases and even discussed three cases in detail where the person or a NP had to face legal actions afterwards after they tried to act as Good Samaritans. The methodology was not complex in this case because most of the specific data was reviewed and taken from cases in courts and articles published. Writer even went on to mention several suggestive measures for NP in specific and other medical professionals in general about the way they should act in case there is any emergency. The conclusion is very well supported by the case, writer has established. There is a definite confusion and synchronization among various states about this law so it is very important for a NP to act according to the law of the state she is working on. Moreover, the writer also stresses the need of stronger and better legislation among states so that NPs are not hesitant to act when they see any emergency situation. This would reduce morbidity and mortality and even provide NPs a chance to render their services for the goodwill of people. This law is not applicable in United State but has also been adopted in a slight different form by other countries as mentioned by the writer. This topic is very important for future consideration of nursing because it can relate to their life and presents a problem that any nurse can face even outside work environment. These discussions would help a nurse to make her decision in such a situation as per the laws of the state she is working in. This is a life saving procedure but involves some legal problems that can occur in some of the cases (Tumolo, J. 2002). This is one field that has a lot of scope for future research on the same lines. More studies and analysis of various cases would even highlight the issue which would help in proper law making in different states. Nurses should also be encouraged through research and publication not to hesitate when it is about
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
House Parties with Under Age Drinking - Research Paper Example Decreasing the prevalence of this would involve tightening current laws and policies as well as increasing monitoring, so that it is known more often when underage youth are being provided with alcohol. Introduction One important issue affecting the youth of today is drinking behavior, in particular underage drinking behavior. Currently the legal age for drinking in the United States is 21 years of age. However, there are a wide range of contexts in which individuals below the drinking age obtain alcohol, often through adults or individuals that are above the legal drinking age. There is a large amount of concern that the amount of underage youths that are drinking, and the amount of alcohol that they are consuming. On average young people appear to be drinking alcohol more frequently and are drinking more each time they do drink . One circumstance that this occurs in are house parties. The term house party covers a large range of situations, but can generally be considered a social gathering that occurs at someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s place of residence. This can range from a couple of friends, through to more than 100 people. Often house parties are held by and for young adults, with college and high school students attending. The Prevalence of Underage Drinking Underage drinking is extremely prevalent even by the time that children reach the senior years of high school. Around 30% of seniors at high school report heavy drinking at least once per month, and 40% of full-time college students aged between 18 and 22 report heavy drinking. These statistics are alarming, as almost all of those children and young adults are below the minimum age for drinking. In addition, there are many harmful consequences of drinking and these are often amplified in younger drinkers, in part due to lower tolerances of alcohol and also less life experience . In 1984 an act was passed that encouraged each state to set their minimum drinking age to 21. By 1988, the minimum drinking age for all states was 21 . Alcohol is a significant factor in the deaths and unintentional injuries for many youth aged 15- to 20-, with the rate of drunk drivers under 21 twice that of adult drivers. As well as injury, there are many other costs of underage drinking, including problems at school, pregnancies and sexual diseases as a consequence of unsafe sexual practices and severe alcohol addiction . Why is Underage Drinking so Prevalent? Alcohol is widely available and easily obtainable for adults over the age of 21 through a number of different types of locations, including many that allow off premises consumption. There are little limitations in the quantity of alcohol that an adult can by, and no way of knowing what an adult intends to do with the alcohol that they buy. Despite the age restriction, alcohol is easy to obtain for those underage. Between 30 and 70 percent of outlets may sell to underage buyers, depending on the particular outlet and the location. Another common source of al cohol for underage drinkers is at parties where alcohol has been provided and the youths at the party have been left unsupervised . Drinking of alcohol is heavily advertised as beneficial, a method of socialization and of relaxing, and these advertisements affect youth as much or more than they do their target audience. In addition to this the enforcement of the minimum
Monday, July 22, 2019
The idea of democracy Essay The example Provident provides is exemplary of what the founding fathers of America had in mind with the idea of democracy. Since all men are created equally, it seems only right that we would contribute to the betterment of all, including those of different races. The Provident example is key is illustrating that Ã¢â¬Å"a solid investment strategyÃ¢â¬ in the form of philanthropic giving helps to fuel the economy on many different levels. Since Provident, Ã¢â¬Å"A greater percentage of our population has achieved a higher standard of living than any other country with our levels of diversity. Ã¢â¬ In the spirit of democracy, self funding provides more opportunities, which provides a positive element to capitalism. Those who have already benefitted from capitalism have the opportunity to fuel new opportunities for more people, providing a unique balance between democracy and capitalism. This is why the United States has been so successful; more successful than any other nation actually. This balance is necessary in order for either of the two systems to work correctly and fairly. Without philanthropic giving, a very unique feature of the United States, this balance would be impossible. Generosity blurs some of the social restraints placed on people in different economic brackets and allows more people more opportunities for success.
Chemistry is a Part of Life Essay For you to understand my personal importance placed on chemistry, you would first need to understand who I am in reference to chemistry. So for starters I am a Christian, second a human, third a survivor, and fourth a biochemist. These parts are what make chemistry personally important. Now that you know who I am in reference to chemistry, I now explain for understanding purposes why. As a Christian chemistry is an important part to me. I can only explain the significance using Genesis 2:7 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being,Ã¢â¬ (2011). Chemistry is all around us, in the air, the ground, and in the body. God took the elements in the form of atoms from the ground and used them to form man; he also used them to put life or air into the nostrils of man. I could only imagine the amount and types of elements God placed into the form of man. And because of scientific advances you and I could somewhat grasp the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"96% of the mass of the human body is made of four elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen; with a lot of that in the form of water,Ã¢â¬ (Schirber, 2009). However in the human body Ã¢â¬Å"we donÃ¢â¬â¢t look at them as single elements but as elements wrapped up into a compound,Ã¢â¬ (Schirber, 2009). The human consumes these same elements from the foods from the ground and the food from animals on the Earth. So clichÃ ©, you are what you eat. As a human this aspect of chemistry allows me to become a survivor. As a human I was able to survive, and through chemistry my survival has been sustained. This started June of 1992, I was not even a year old and as a toddler I was active, however my body would not allow me to play for extended periods of time like most toddlers. As a human my body was using its chemical signals to alert my brain that not enough oxygen was reaching other organs and such, so it forced me to rest more often than most. Later in June of 1993, my parents were told that I would need repair surgery for my heart valve. It seemed that my heart acquired a whole after birth that did not close as I aged, and with being an active toddler I put a strain on the whole opening making it increase in size as I engaged in physical activities. This damaged my mitral valve (the main valve to allow blood into the heart), and when doctors opened up for surgery they realized the extent of the damage on the mitral valve; it was beyond repair. Already for surgery the doctor made a quick and biologically sound decision to replace my lost heart valve with a titanium prosthetic heart valve. Reason for being a biologically sound decision is due to titaniumÃ¢â¬â¢s medical benefits (Schank, 2012): * Strong * Lightweight * Corrosion Resistant * Biocompatible (non-toxic AND not rejected by the body) * Long-lasting * Non-ferromagnetic * Flexibility and elasticity rivals that of human bone This is when chemistry met biology for me. And 18 yrs. and 7 months after my surgery I am still ticking Ã¢â¬â the sound made by the titanium parts opening and closing as my heart beats. My biochemical encounter not only saved my life, but it also sustains it through the use of medicine that aids my blood in passing through the titanium mechanism. Ã¢â¬Å"Mechanical valves, which are made of biomaterials, may last a long time. However the patient with a mechanical valve must use an anticoagulant medication such as warfarin (Coumadin, Panwarfin) for the rest of life to prevent blood clots from forming on the valve. If a blood clot forms on the valve, the valve wonÃ¢â¬â¢t work properly. If a clot escapes the valve, it could lodge in an artery to the brain, blocking blood flow to the brain and causing a stroke,Ã¢â¬ (Yi-Ren Woo, Carlos Rosario, and Prof. Pablo CÃ ¡ceres; 2003).This is where chemistry, along with biology influenced me to become a biochemist. And my reason for choosing that profession is some on needs to come up with a way to make warfarin taste better as well as all the other cough and cold medicines for adults as well as children. So reader with this I hope you are able to understand that to me CHEMISTRY is IMPORTANT, because without it my life would not have begun, continued, or still sustaining today. Work Cited Schank, Craig. Titanium: The Medical Metal of Choice. Titanium SpecialistÃ¢â¬ ¦SuperAlloy.com. Super Alloy Inc.: 2012. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. http://www.supraalloys.com/medical-titanium.php. Schirber, Michael. The Chemistry of Life: The Human Body. Live Science. 16 Apr. 2009.Web. 26 Apr. 2012. http://www.livescience.com/3505-chemistry-life-human-body.html. THE HOLY BIBLE. NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSIONÃ ®, NIVÃ ®. Biblica, Inc.: 2011. Print. Woo, Yi-Ren; Carlos Rosario; and Prof. Pablo CÃ ¡ceres. BIOMECHANICS OF MECHANICAL HEART VALVE. Applications of Engineering Mechanics in Medicine. December 2003. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. http://academic.uprm.edu/~mgoyal/materialsdec2003/a03heartvalve.pdf.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Causes of Air Pollution | The Impact of Air Pollution Air pollution is the chemical, particulate, and biological matter that can harm or distress human, living organism, or the natural environment into the atmosphere. In this project, the researcher team studied the causes and effects of the air pollution in the United Arab Emirates and discovered and will discuss the main causes of the pollution and their effects on the environment. Also, some statistics about the percentage of air pollution will be discussed from previous studies in the UAE such as governmental and private statistical data. In addition, solution for protecting the air pollution will be studied in order to have better environment to live in. Additionally, the team will discuss a case study regarding the effects of air pollution in UAE. The goal of the project is to study the cause of the air pollution in UAE and how it can affect the environment. Also, the next goal is to give some solutions that can save the environment and give some awareness in protecting the air pollution. In the past fifty years, UAE had an excessive development in many fields such as buildings, industries, and transportation after oil discovering. Due to the increases of the projects, the air starts getting many pollutants such as dusts, Chemical gases, Carbon Dioxide emissions which led to an increase in the air pollution. Statistics show that the United Arab Emirates is the fourth highest country in Carbon Dioxide emissions between the Arab countries and 32 all over the world. The steady increase in the air pollution can affect the humanity in the short term and long term such as Acid rain and health problem which lead to study the pollution in the region. Limitation In this project, the research team will study the air pollution in the UAE and will not go further to Middle East or the world due to time limitation and amount of work that have been done for the topic. The time period of the research topic will be for the last five years. It is just the industry and civilization has been spread widely in UAE at this period which will be enough for the research time. In addition, the research team will get from previous studies and statistics about air pollution in UAE due to shortage in resources and equipment for the topic. Review of the Literature History of air pollution in UAE The problem relates with the air pollution has been in the UAE since 1958 after discovering the oil field in Abu Dhabi and another one in Dubai 1966. The problem of air pollution start increase steadily after the first industry came in Abu Dhabi 1966 then another one in the Al Ain and Sharjah in 1969.there is many industries can affect enormously in the region. According to the Ministry of Environment and Water in UAE, 6 Industries produced different dangerous chemical organic, 9 industries produces cements which can also affect the air and 2 other industries has been shut down due to violent in regulation and the gas emission. There are now 3593 Industries in UAE as you can see in table below. The most industries are in Jabel Ali Free Zone and the Sharjah Industrial Areas. Cities Abu Dhabi Dubai Sharjah Ajman Um Al Quwain RAK Fujairah Total No of Industries 409 1491 874 493 53 212 61 3593 Percentage 11.38% 41.50% 24.33% 13.72% 1.48% 5.90% 1.70% 100.00% Table : Number of Industries in UAE (UAE Export and Indusry directly, 2010) The number of cars has been increased dramatically for the last 20 years the statistics below show the number of increase in cars in 2009 in Dubai. Type of car Light Vehicles Heavy Vehicles Light Bus Heavy Bus Light Mechanical Vehicles Heavy Mechanical Vehicle Motorcycle Leisure Motorcycle Vehicle for disable TOTAL Number of car 837765 55768 25782 22317 7671 18714 17844 15 4 1021879 Table : Number of car in Dubai 2009 (Dubai statistical centre, 2009) There are really a huge problem with the huge increment of the cars which really cause a huge traffic because statistics show UAE is one of the highest countries in the traffic especially in Dubai and Sharjah which can cause really a huge problem such as the car air pollution. Studies showed that 80% from the air pollution in Dubai came from the emissions of gases from cars. There were many ways to think and start of protecting air pollution. In 1993, Dubai Municipality started putting some of the air quality stations system to protect the gas emissions in the city. Also, in 1993, UAE Federal government imposed some laws in order to prevent the air pollution. As we can see today there are many government organization and many laws that control the area such UAE air control monitoring laws. Causes and effects of air pollution in UAE: The first cause is motor vehicles: Motor vehicles are considered one of the main causes of air pollution, as there is a steady increase in the number of production annually. Moreover, Vehicles have the largest impact on environment. As a result, motor vehicles produce more air pollution. According to statistical report, the population growth was less than the production of motor vehicles, as the population growth was two percent and the motor vehicles production was five percent. In addition, vehicles major cause for air pollution is the static combustion of fossil fuel. Also the smoke produced from the burning of the fuel produces many harmful gases, the main ones are, Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen oxide (NO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Figure : Air Toxic Emissions from on Road Mobile Source Carbon monoxide: Carbon monoxide is a toxic colorless gas which is emitted from the tail pipe of the car. The reason behind emission such gas into the environment is either the lack of maintained of the vehicle, such as, broken air bumps and dirty filters, or the incomplete combustion of the fuel. Effects: CO toxicity is one of the most fatal air poisoning around the world. Although it is tasteless and colorless, it is high in toxicity. This is because; it combines with hemoglobin forming carboxyhemogoblin, which decreases the efficiency of red blood cells to transfer oxygen to body tissues. Moreover, this process is known as anoxemia. Additionally, small concentrations such as 677 ppm (parts per million) can cause the conversion of more than fifty percent of the bodys hemoglobin to carboxyhemoglobin , which can cause seizure, coma, and fatality. The most common signs of poisoning are such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue and a feeling of weakness. Also, it can affect the nervous system, as it can cause confusion, disorientation, visual disturbance, syncope and seizures. Further, it can cause the damage to the heart and the fetus of the pregnant women. Nitrogen Oxide: Nitrogen oxide is one of the most toxic gases which can be produced from the car engines, incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and fertilizers. Effects: The Nitrogen oxides can help in the formation of the acid rain, it is a major factor in global warming, it slows down the growth of plants, it can react with other pollutants; thus, forming more toxic chemicals. Nitrogen oxides effects are nausea, irritated eyes and nose, fluid forming in lungs and tininess of breath. Furthermore, inhaling large amount of Nitrogen oxides can lead to rapid, burning seizure; inflammation of throat; reduced oxygen ingestion; a larger buildup of fluids in lungs; thus death. Nitrogen oxides can interact with aerosols which can cause enormous respiratory problems. As well, Nitrogen oxides can lead to permanent visual impairment in the area affected by it. Sulfur dioxide: Sulfur dioxide is a chemical compound which has the formula of SO2, it is produced when coal and fuel is burned, as fuel and sulfur contains sulfur compounds. Effects: The sulphur dioxide is very dangerous, as it causes breathing problems, such as, alteration in the lungs defences, deterioration in respiratory system and cardiovascular disease. As well, Ones who suffer from asthma, chronic lung and heart disease are the largely sensitive to SO2. Additionally, it can lead to the damage of trees and crops. SO2, by the side of nitrogen oxides, are the major pioneers in formation of acid rain, which causes the acidification of lakes and streams, speed up the corrosion of buildings and reduced visibility. SO2 also contributes in climate change. The second cause is volatile organic compounds: Volatile organic compounds are organic materials that have significant vapor pressure; as a result, it is easy for these organic compounds to evaporate quickly at a very low temperature. Further, some of these gases are considered dangerous on humans health, the environment and the ozone layer. Additionally, the major sources for the VOC are paints, coatings, Chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons. Painting and coatings used in doors emit ethyl acetate, glycol ethers, and acetone, which are very harmful to the human beings health. Additionally, chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons, they are widely used in dry cleaning and the production of fossil fuel. Effects: Certain kinds of VOCs, such as styrene and limonene, can go on with a react ion with nitrogen oxides, or with ozone; thus, producing new oxidation products. Moreover, it can produce secondary aerosols, which can lead to sensory irritation symptoms. What is more, it can cause eye, nose and throat irritation, headaches, loss of coordination and nausea, damage to liver, kidney, and central nervous system. Additionally, it can lead to cancer in animals and cancer in humans. The third cause is Deforestation: Deforestation is the removal of forest or a group of tress and then the land is converted to non forest use. There are many reasons regarding deforestation, such as, Urban and Construction Purposes, as they use the wood obtained from trees for building materials, furniture, and paper products. Moreover, Forests are also removed to provide accommodation for escalating urban areas. Furthermore, Forests are removed so that to clear land for growing crops and for grazing cattle. Additionally, trees are used as a source of fuel, as they are converted to charcoal in order to be used in cooking and heating purposes. Effects: Erosion of soil: as the forests are removed, the soil is countenancing the sun, causing dryness to the soil and losing its nutrients. As a result, it will be impossible to cultivate again. Disruption of the Water Cycle: trees helps maintaining the balance of water in the ecosystem, as the trees are removed, the weather gets drier and unhealthy. Flooding and Drought: One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area. Climate Change: It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees. When deforestation occurs, many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot, which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide. This, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of carbon. Case study of air Pollution in UAE A case study had been conducted to study the burden of diseases in UAE in long and short terms. There study the Impact of the Particulate Matter (PM) and Ozone (O3) in ambient air and how it going to affect people in the region. The World Health Organization defined that the total death due to Particulate Matter was 200, but didnt report the diseases due to other air pollutants. As results, theses study has been conducted in order to clarify the number disease due to other pollutant. Other status that relate to some effect to people by air such as smoking habit, health care statues, working and living environment are not considered. Firstly, the researcher of this study studied the PM and O3 in UAE as shown in the next two figures. Figure : A contour map show PM concentration in UAE Figure : A contour map show O3 concentration in UAE The next part of the study was to see number of death people in the region due to the between 545 (542 adults and 3 children) has diseases from PM, 209 (208 adults and 1 children) has a dead from it and 162 death from the O3 effects over the past 30 year the next two figures show the percentage of death including some uncertainties. Figure : chart show causes and death by PM Figure : chart show causes and death by O3 Method and discussion: As the research is limited to UAE region, the group was going to allocate sources related to the UAE region. The sources was books, online books, journals and online journals, as the group located some books that discuss the air pollution problems: such as, the major causes of air pollution in UAE and the effects of these causes on the UAE residents. In addition, some of the article had been seen some of the cause and effect in UAE. Also, the researcher team searched and found of some of the air pollution that affected the region. As allocation of credible evidence to the problem is required, the team searched for statistical data such as Chemical element emissions in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. After the group finishes the causes and effects of air pollution allocation, we will suggest solutions that can be implemented for better future and healthier generations. The following table showed that amount of work we did in the Multidisciplinary Projects. In addition, the project chart flow has been included by PRIMAVERA to be more a lear image of the duration of the project which Start from October 13th, 2010 and finished at January 16th, 2011 with total of 98 days. Duration (Days) Activity Description Early Start Early Finish Late Start Late Finish 6 Making the Tasks 13-Oct-10 20-Oct-10 13-Oct-10 20-Oct-10 10 Background of the Topic 21-Oct-10 3-Nov-10 21-Oct-10 3-Nov-10 8 Time Limitation 4-Nov-10 15-Nov-10 4-Nov-10 15-Nov-10 18 Study Cause of Air pollution in UAE 21-Nov-10 14-Dec-10 21-Nov-10 14-Dec-10 18 Case Studies 21-Nov-10 14-Dec-10 28-Nov-10 21-Dec-10 20 Study Effect of Air pollution in UAE 21-Nov-10 16-Dec-10 21-Nov-10 16-Dec-10 10 Statistical Data 22-Dec-10 4-Jan-11 22-Dec-10 4-Jan-11 5 Making Recommendation 5-Jan-11 11-Jan-11 5-Jan-11 11-Jan-11 3 Making Written and Oral Presentation 12-Jan-11 16-Jan-11 12-Jan-11 16-Jan-11 Table : Timeline of the Scheule Figure : A flow Chart of the Project Results In order to know the quality of air in the UAE, statistical data about the amounts of pollutants emissions was retrieved for analysis. However, working with statistical data raises two problems first is accuracy and second reliability. Since, statistical data are collected from samples, it is very important to have both accurate and reliable data if the results were to be generalized over the whole population. To ensure that our data are as accurate and reliable as possible we used governmental statistics center of Abu Dhabi and Dubai to find our results. The results found focuses on the emission of three main pollutants which are Carbon monoxide, Sulfur dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide. Moreover, the results cover two main cities in the UAE, Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Since, the research is limited to five years; the results cover the years 2005 to 2009. Because statistical data need time to be gathered and published by the government, the emission results for the year 2010 were not included in the research. Furthermore, the city of Abu Dhabi was divided into three main areas, main city Abu Dhabi, Al-Ain and Western Region. Dubai, on the other hand, was divided into six main areas, which are Diera, Safa, AlKaramah, Mushrif, Jabel Ali Village and Jabel Ali Port. Analyzing these results will show the exact amounts of pollution in each part, which will help in identifying the areas with the highest pollution levels. Knowing that, the recovery from pollution should be concentrated in these regions. Since, the results cover the last five years; we can know the trends in the emission of pollutants. This helps in identifying the areas were the pollution increases and the rate at which it increases. These results are very important in our research because it focuses our concentration in fewer areas which is more practical. Note that all the pollution levels are found in micrograms per meter cube (mcg/m3) and na means not-available. Carbon monoxide (CO) Abu Dhabi Only available data from 2007 to 2009 2007 2008 2009 Abu Dhabi 5.4 10.5 10.72 Al Ain 5.72 7.9 13.3 Western Region na na na Table : CO emission in Abu Dhabi Dubai 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Deira 1.6 3.4 5.4 9.6 10.9 Safa 1.3 3.6 5.5 8.8 10.8 AlKaramah 1.8 4.2 4.1 1.1 Mushrif Jabel Ali Village Jabel Ali Port Table : CO Emission in Dubai Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Abu Dhabi Only available data from 2007 to 2009 2007 2008 2009 Abu Dhabi 149 173.1 330 Al Ain 86 123.4 31 Western Region 161 124 179 Table : SO2 Emission in Abu Dhabi Dubai 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Deira 0.09 0.017 0.027 0.018 0.006 Safa AlKaramah Mushrif Jabel Ali Village 0.022 0.12 0.024 Jabel Ali Port 0.034 0.021 0.019 0.021 Table : SO2 Emission in Dubai Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Abu Dhabi Only available data from 2007 to 2009 2007 2008 2009 Abu Dhabi 278 187.4 321.0 Al Ain 271 147.2 234 Western Region 192 72.6 289 Table : NO2 Emission in Abu Dhabi Dubai 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Deira 0.492 0.302 0.225 0.113 Safa 0.261 0.091 0.319 0.319 0.063 AlKaramah 0.445 0.306 0.091 Mushrif Jabel Ali Village 0.439 0.306 0.23 0.217 0.067 Jabel Ali Port 0.306 0.306 0.173 0.117 Table : NO2 Emission in Dubai Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions There is no doubt that air pollution is one of the severe problems that people are facing nowadays and want strongly to get rid of. There is one question that the research team members have asked themselves regularly and the question is Why have we decided to choose the air pollution topic to be our project to talk about in the English 207 course? the answer of this question has been clarified and verified due to the importance of the topic and its widespread facts that the world is concerning about these days. Getting the definition, the causes, the effects of the air pollution, the team has already got in love with the topic of air pollution and strongly wanted to write about it and search about it more to know the real facts beyond this topic. The air pollution is a problem including and concerning each individual in this world. During Industry, combustion of engines, burning coal, smoking and emissions of green gasses are exceeding the limits and increasing the percentage of the air pollution. But as far as the EPA has a group that is concerning with its difficult task to help this polluted air from the humanity risk, the air is getting its freshness and cleanness. Dont you think that it is our mission also to support the EPA group and stop the humanity risk from the air pollution risks, so lets be one hand combing the seriousness of this topic to avoid the risks on this polluted air to be more worse than this. We cannot say that people can eliminate this issue completely because humans industry doesnt finish and his/her greed to get more is increasing day after day disregarding the case of their polluting the air that we are breathing. So, we can minimize this phenomenon by reducing these emissions and polluting factors of the air. Recommendations It is a very crucial step to point out that each project has been done, is being done or will be done is ending with some results. These results are either satisfied with the humans nature or unsatisfied. The project that has been done by our research team shows some results that are unsuitable for the human beings, this environment and also to a very important kind of humanity which is the humanity resources. Nobody can deny that air pollution has severe problems on humans environment and can perfectly damage humans life. What is remaining of this damaged environment and this polluted air that we are breathing? People are keeping in resolving their faults and they are in anxiety to keep this environment clean to be proper to live in. In fact, the results of the project are followed by some recommendations created or found by the research team to show how to keep a good humanity environment and having good humanity resources. As it has been shown that most of the natural resources an d also humans are affected by the air pollution and this has been shown in this project in the term of effects of air pollution on humanity. The mankind can cause a lot of destruction to himself/herself and can reduce a lot of this destruction he/she has done. It is obligatory and a crucial task for anyone of us to keep this environment clean to live in and to let others live in in a proper way. To reduce these effects on humanity, the research team has done some kind of suggestions and recommendations that could properly reduce the effects of the causes of the air pollution as follows: *Steps to reduce the level of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide and other green gasses causing air pollution: Doing a regular vehicle maintenance and this to reduce the percentage of the Carbon Monoxide and Dioxide coming out of the cars exhaust. Reducing the percentage of burning trash and coal which are producing most of the Carbon Dioxide and then affecting the Ozone layer and increasing the percentage of the Acid rain. Reducing the Green house Gas emissions including water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and other harmful gasses causing the temperature increasing and then the global warming. Trying hard and putting all efforts to use the clean renewable and non polluting sources. Getting help from engineers to invent new technologies that are friendly to the environment such as the solar car that is powered and used in many cities nowadays. The solar cars could perfectly decrease the percentage of the emissions of either the Carbon Monoxide or Carbon Dioxide that are produced from millions of regular combustion cars engines. The most important is to stop smoking in order to decrease the Carbon Monoxide in the air. Also, people can use recycled products in order to decrease the global warming in the world. Following the EPA rules (Environmental Protection Agency). The EPA has done a lot of steps in the case of reducing the air pollution following the steps shown above. The EPA has proved that the air pollution is still growing by 10% even the steps are followed. The most important thing that could be done by the human himself/herself is warning people regarding the enormous bad effects of the air pollution. Also, they can give some lectures that advising people to reduce the percentage of the air pollution through some statistically and theoretically useful data, lectures and workshops. References:  Statistical Yearbook of Abu Dhabi 2010,Statictics centre Abu Dhabi, January 2011.  Ying Li et al., Burden of disease attributed to anthropogenic air pollution in the United Arab Emirates: Estimates based on observed air quality data,Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 2010, pp. 5784 5793, August 2010.  (2010, July) UAE Export and Directly. [Online]. HYPERLINK http://www.uaeexportdirectory.com/en/ResultStat.aspx http://www.uaeexportdirectory.com/en/ResultStat.aspx  (2010, December) Air Pollution Indicators at Monitoring Sites Emirate of Dubai. Pdf File.  (2010, October) Enviremntal Preotection Agency. [Online]. HYPERLINK http://www.epa.gov/ http://www.epa.gov/  (2010, November) Intelligent Life of Deforestation. [Online]. HYPERLINK http://www.buzzle.com/articles/causes-and-effects-of-deforestation.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/causes-and-effects-of-deforestation.html  (2009, Febraury) Sulphur Dioxide (SO2). [Online]. HYPERLINK http://www.airqualityontario.com/science/pollutants/sulphur.cfm http://www.airqualityontario.com/science/pollutants/sulphur.cfm  (2007, April) Agency for toxic subtances and Diease Registry. [Online]. HYPERLINK http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts175.html http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts175.html  (2010, July) Ministry of Enviromental and Water. [Online]. HYPERLINK http://www.moew.gov.ae/Ar/InformationCenter/Pages/ManufacturesGuide.aspx http://www.moew.gov.ae/Ar/InformationCenter/Pages/ManufacturesGuide.aspx
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Scope and ways of participation: There are three sets of managerial decision, which have the direct impact on the employees of any industrial formation. They are social, people and economic decisions. Economic decision includes the financial aspects like, manufacturing, mechanization, termination etc. Personnel decisions mention to recruitment, selection, advertising, transmission, criticism handling & etc. Social decisions refer to working hour, prosperity measure, working rule and manner of individual, joining in social, personal, & economic. On school of thought is of the opinion that the employees at several levels. The first opinion could lead to the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ actual contribution in the decision making of safety, health, and hygiene and noise level. The employees must have a say in the choice on the issues mentioned above. But there is variance of opinion about the scope and the degree to which workers or the trade unions should on equality basis, sitting with the management as the equal partner, and t o make dual managerial decisions on all stuffs. In practice, the factors affecting the workers participation can be shown as: Participation at The Board Level: The board of directors is the head body in the management of a corporate institution. A representation of employees on the board would, it is supposed, escort in industrial democracy, ensure improved employer-employee relationship and guarantee better productivity. The workers participation at the board of directors sacks safe guard employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ interest, assist as a control system, guide to management, guidance on matter of venture. The contribution of workers are highest management is not without problems. The board of any initiative is primarily alarmed with problems l... ...and impressive results when correctly applied. Empowered Teams: The empowerment happens in the period power goes to employees and they can practice a sense of ownership and control over their jobs. Empowered individuals recognize that their jobs have its place to them. Empowerment is eased by a combination of features like values, leadership actions, job configuration and rewards system. Financial Participation: Financial participation varies from other forms of employee involvement in that, it is less probable to involve employees in discussion or decision making processes. The general determination of financial participation is to improve the organizational performances through the workers assurance. There are various financial participation schemes like profit-related pay, profit sharing, workers assistance, pension fund participation and wage earner profits etc.
College Writing in the College Classroom If someone were to ask a group of people what is the purpose of a college writing course in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, they would have to first think about the purpose of college in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society.There would probably be a variety of thoughts and images that come to mind like Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s a place where you can get a degree,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"a place where you can learn things that prepare you for the real world,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å" itÃ¢â¬â¢s a place where you can further your education from where you left off in high school.Ã¢â¬ The group may also think of things like Ã¢â¬Å"a place just like regular school, except itÃ¢â¬â¢s harder, and you have to pay for it,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"the place that you have to go to if you want a chance at any real decent job.Ã¢â¬ But in all actuality, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s only looking at face value.College provides you with the necessary tools needed to improve yourself in the ways that you choose. Now if you added the words Ã¢â¬Å"collegeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"writing courseÃ¢â¬ together, you may get a phrase that may be intimidating to some people.When people see the word Ã¢â¬Å"college,Ã¢â¬ the word Ã¢â¬Å"advancedÃ¢â¬ may come to mind.Even the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"writing classÃ¢â¬ may be enough to scare away some people.The thought of a Ã¢â¬Å"college writing classÃ¢â¬ may be unbearable.Why would even mentioning the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"college writing classÃ¢â¬ strike fear in the hearts of men?More than likely these people, or students, probably went through their entire school writing careers with a variety of different teachers.Each of these teachers probably had different views, and methods of teaching writing. This accusation wonÃ¢â¬â¢t relate to everyone, but I can confidently present this theory based on personal experience.Each of my four high school English courses were different in many different ways.In my freshman ... ...ortable in the classroom environment.The teacher should be understanding of each personÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions, and respect what writing that they feel should be confidential.While it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that important for a teacher to teach exactly like another, it is important that they focus on trying to meet the same goals.If both student and teacher worked together and respected each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and techniques, then that would be a large step in improving how the subject of English is taught and learned in the college classroom. Works Cited Hairston, Maxine. Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing.Ã¢â¬ College Composition and Communication 43.2. May 1992: 179-195. Swartzlander, Susan, Diana Pace, Virginia Lee Stamler. Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching WritingÃ¢â¬ The Chronicle of Higher Education. 1993: B1-B2. Tan, Amy. Ã¢â¬ Mother Tongue.Ã¢â¬ The Threepenny Review. 1990
Friday, July 19, 2019
A topic that has been in discussion throughout the years was the use of alternative energy. Alternative Energy is being increasingly used due to Ã¢â¬Å"The threat of global warming.Ã¢â¬ (Tom Udall, Ã¢â¬Å"Clean Energy,Ã¢â¬ par. 3). The result of the burning of fossil fuels and fossil fuels are soon depleting and alternative energies will be the ways that people will be living in the near future. As the positives of alternative energy will provide a healthier and cleaner future, cost is something people underestimate. The price of alternative energy will increase our national deficit as well as the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s taxes, as manufacturing these products that will create alternative energy is expensive. As the economy of the United States continues to fall apart, Americans continually overuse fossil fuels and increasing the chance of global warming. As this epidemic continues to rise, the government issued a bill asking for change to the way fossil fuels are being used up. As the government started dealing with this problem, some influential senators have designed a bill called Ã¢â¬Å"S.3813: Renewable Electricity Promotion Act of 2010 stating by 2021, power plants will be run by 15% alternative energy.Ã¢â¬ (Reuters, Ã¢â¬Å"US renewable energy bill,Ã¢â¬ par. 2). This is the debate of how the future will end up. This measure "will help protect and create hundreds of thousands of good-paying jobs and keep America in the clean energy race." (Par. 6). As this debate continues to persuade other members of Congress, the bill will be persuaded by interest groups who were made to promote or demote the bill. Interest Groups will use all the resources they can possibly use to find ways to beat the other interest groups to help promote its ideas. As the bill is going through Cong... ...passed the Senate, where the Senate need to collaborate in where certain amendments fit, the last time someone was looking at S. 3813 was Ã¢â¬Å"Sept 21, 2010,Ã¢â¬ shows that slow progression of the bill. Ã¢â¬Å"The bill was considered in committee which has recommended it be considered by the Senate as a whole.Ã¢â¬ (Gov Track, Ã¢â¬Å"S. 3813,Ã¢â¬ par. 1). The most influential group that has made the most impact would be the American Petroleum Institute, where they have the expertise of 270 staff members, where each work on a different aspect of the bill and find ways for the bill to be past. The government hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t resolved the problem yet because the bill is still being placed under amendments that apply to the bill. It is being carefully examined by the Senators so that mistakes in the bill are not passed and are revised and which will help the economy and the people of the United States. Alternative Energy Essay -- Environment, Fossil Fuel, Wind Energy A topic that has been in discussion throughout the years was the use of alternative energy. Alternative Energy is being increasingly used due to Ã¢â¬Å"The threat of global warming.Ã¢â¬ (Tom Udall, Ã¢â¬Å"Clean Energy,Ã¢â¬ par. 3). The result of the burning of fossil fuels and fossil fuels are soon depleting and alternative energies will be the ways that people will be living in the near future. As the positives of alternative energy will provide a healthier and cleaner future, cost is something people underestimate. The price of alternative energy will increase our national deficit as well as the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s taxes, as manufacturing these products that will create alternative energy is expensive. As the economy of the United States continues to fall apart, Americans continually overuse fossil fuels and increasing the chance of global warming. As this epidemic continues to rise, the government issued a bill asking for change to the way fossil fuels are being used up. As the government started dealing with this problem, some influential senators have designed a bill called Ã¢â¬Å"S.3813: Renewable Electricity Promotion Act of 2010 stating by 2021, power plants will be run by 15% alternative energy.Ã¢â¬ (Reuters, Ã¢â¬Å"US renewable energy bill,Ã¢â¬ par. 2). This is the debate of how the future will end up. This measure "will help protect and create hundreds of thousands of good-paying jobs and keep America in the clean energy race." (Par. 6). As this debate continues to persuade other members of Congress, the bill will be persuaded by interest groups who were made to promote or demote the bill. Interest Groups will use all the resources they can possibly use to find ways to beat the other interest groups to help promote its ideas. As the bill is going through Cong... ...passed the Senate, where the Senate need to collaborate in where certain amendments fit, the last time someone was looking at S. 3813 was Ã¢â¬Å"Sept 21, 2010,Ã¢â¬ shows that slow progression of the bill. Ã¢â¬Å"The bill was considered in committee which has recommended it be considered by the Senate as a whole.Ã¢â¬ (Gov Track, Ã¢â¬Å"S. 3813,Ã¢â¬ par. 1). The most influential group that has made the most impact would be the American Petroleum Institute, where they have the expertise of 270 staff members, where each work on a different aspect of the bill and find ways for the bill to be past. The government hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t resolved the problem yet because the bill is still being placed under amendments that apply to the bill. It is being carefully examined by the Senators so that mistakes in the bill are not passed and are revised and which will help the economy and the people of the United States.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
The researchers investigated only on the comparison between Zamias and Dolan as to which is the better decontrolling agent. This study concentrated only on the use of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus erasures which is a gram negative and a gram- positive bacteria respectively. Significance of the Study This study will be conducted to determine the Overran blimp (zamias) and Citrus uranium Lain. (Dolan) acidity to be used as an alternative decolonize in Gram Staining. In the world of Medical Technology, practice of repairing smears on a slide is a part of it.The ethanol-alcohol mixture is commonly used as decolonize, but there is a necessary need for finding an alternative decolonize. The need for finding an alternative decolonize will be more environmental friendly. This project is aimed to produce a natural stain decolonize for plant and animal tissues that is inexpensive and whose sources are indigenous, abundant and more efficient way in finding a natural substance that will ma tch the components in the alcohol. Setting of the study The study will be conducted in Centre Escalator University located in Medical, Manila.Centre Escalator University is a private, non-sectarian higher education institution with an enrolment of over 20,000 students in its three campuses; Manila, Magmata, and Mallows. Centre Escalator University was founded on June 3, 1 907 by Library Availing and Carmen De Ulna and was originally called Centre Escalator De Senoritas. The research will be conducted at Centennial Research Laboratory at Conception Caligula Hall and Generous De Leon Science Center at Centre Escalator University. Conceptual framework The Gram stain is the most important and universally used staining technique in the bacteriology laboratory (S.W. Joseph, et. L. 2000). In relation to the study, the researchers decided to make an alternative decolonize for Gram staining with the use of the fruit extract of Zamias and Dolan which is commonly found in the Philippines. The process will include the extraction procedure using a juicer to obtain the extract. The fruit extract of Zamias and Dolan will undergo photochemical property screening. The Gram staining procedure will entail the use of Staphylococcus erasures and Escherichia coli that will serve as test organisms to test the effectiveness of Zamias and Dolan as a decolonize.Definition of terms Antibacterial. Useful in curing or preventing the action of harmful bacteria. Ascorbic acid. Vitamin C that is present in citrus fruits and synthetically manufactured fruits. Decentralization. The process of removing stains or coloring agents. Escherichia coli. Bacterium found in human intestine. Gram staining. It is the procedure in microbiological used to differentiate between gram positive organisms and gram negative organisms. Osmotic pressure. It is the pressure required to prevent the passage of water through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of low concentration of solute.Oxalic acid. Used for ble aching or as a clearing agent. Pedagogical. Polymer that is composed of polysaccharide and peptide chains found in bacterial cell wall. Phylogeny. It is the evolutionary origin and development of a particular group of organism. Photochemical property. Property or chemical components relating to plants. Smear. A preparation of substance for microscopic examination. Staphylococcus erasures Species of non-motile bacteria living on skin and mucous membrane. Sapiens. Any of several naturally occurring water soluble glycoside, able to form a ladder. Susceptible.It is the increase likelihood of being affected by, a physical or mental disease or disorder. CHAPTER 2 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS Overran blimp (Zamias) belongs to the genus Overran, family Oxidative (Babushka et al. , 2013). Other name of Overran bimbo include Creole: bumbling plum, billion ; English: blimp, cucumber tree, tree sorrel ; Filipino: zamias; French : blimp, billion coralberry blimp. Zamias is a small tree, growing 5 to 1 2 meters high with a short trunk dividing into a number of upright branches. Leaves are pinnate, 20 to 60 centimeters long, with hairy archaic and leaflets.Leaflets are opposite, 10 to 70 pairs, oblong, 5 to 10 centimeters in length. Panicle growing from the trunk and larger branches are hairy, 15 centimeters long or less. Flowers are about 1. 5 centimeters long, and slightly fragrant. It bears flowers which are small, fragrant, 5-pedaled, yellowish-green or purple marked with dark purple. Fruit is green and edible, about 4 centimeters long, subliminally, or with 5 obscure, board, rounded, longitudinal lobes (Bras, 2001). The outer skin is glossy, very thin, soft and tender and the flesh is green, jelly-like, juicy and extremely acidic.Young fruits are green in color which turns yellowish as they ripe (Roar et al. , 2009). The blimp is a native of the Mollusks and cultivated throughout Indonesia and semi-wild every. Ã¢â¬Å"here in the Philippines and much grown in Ceylon and Burma. It is commonly found in Brazil, Cuba, Philippines, Sir Lankan, Bangladesh, Manner and Malaysia. In 1793, the blimp was very popular among the Asiatic residents of those countries as it must be in Hawaii. (Babushka, et al. , 2013). Overran fruits are acidic and with high fiber content and are rich sources of vitamin C, antioxidants and are low in fat.Overran fruits are high in minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, iron and potassium (Babushka et al. 2013). Overran fruits are rich sources of vitamin C, antioxidants and are low in fat. The fruit contains potassium oxalate or high levels of oxalic acid which may be used to remove iron-rust stain from clothes and to impart shine to brassieres. Chemical constituents include amino acids, citric acid, candying-3-O-b-D-glycoside, phenols, potassium ion, sugars, and Vitamin A (Rarity et al. , 2011). Fruit extract yield flavorings, sapiens ND torpedoing. Bark yields alkaloids, sapiens, and flavorings.The oxalic acid in blimp range between 10. 5 and 14. OMG/g in green fruit and 8. 45 to 10. MGM/g in ripe fruit, levels comparable to those reported from tea leaves. Because of high oxalic acid content, fruit used to remove stains from clothing and for washing hands, removing rust and stains from metal blades. Extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. Coli, S. Typhoid, S. erasures and B. Cereus. It can also be used as a dietary ingredient to treat hyperglycemia and a potential source for the isolation of active principle for cancer therapy. It is also a potential source of intolerability drug.The activity may be caused by either or both of the steroidal glycoside and potassium oxalate constituents. Babushka, et al. , 201 3) Dolan (Citrus uranium), belongs to the family Reeducate, it is a small, erect tree with smooth, greenish white shots with spine-scent thorns. It is an aromatic variety of citrus that produces highly bitter, acidic fruits. Leaves are oblong to supplicate, 10 centimeters long by about 4 centimeters w ide Petiole is narrowly winged. Flowers are white, bisexual, solitary or few clustered, smooth and growing from the upper most leaf axial.Fruit is nearly spherical, 5-9 centimeters in diameter ad annihilate or not, the skin is orange-red and tight; partition inside with yellowish juice sacks. Taste is usually sweet occasionally sour. Citrus uranium extracted and primary parasitological constituent p-synergies are extensively used in weight management products and as thermometric agents. It is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"chi-shihÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Chi shihÃ¢â¬ in traditional Chinese medicine. (Hung, et al. , 2011) The most important biological active constituents of the C. uranium fruits are phenylalanine alkaloids, activation, synergies, trainee, N- antihistamine and hardening.Aperitif, aromatic, stomach, tonic, astringent, mildly criminate, colleague, antibacterial, antithetic, untangling, antispasmodic, unintuitive, diaphragmatic, digestive, unmanaged, stimulant, vermiform. Dried rind is considered aromatic, stomach, tonic, astringent, and mildly criminate. It is rich in vitamin C, flavorings and volatile oil. Citrus flavorings have potential antioxidant, anti-aging anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory activity, and cholesterol lowering potential. Bitter orange has a complex chemical make-up. It is perhaps most known for the volatile oil in the peel.It gives bitter orange its strong odor and flavor which account for its medical effects. Today, bitter orange is used pharmaceutical, cosmetics ND soaps. As a dietary supplement, this herb has been used to stimulate appetite, treat ringworm-type infections, relieves stomach upset and aid insomnia. Both the fruit and peel of this herb are typically included in over the counter nasal decongestants and weight loss products. It has also been used in applications such as indigestion, constipation and support of easing inflammation due to skin bruising and muscle pains.This herb has documented positive entropic effects , showing improvements to blood circulation through the heart and cerebral tissues due to its amine content. Gottfried, 201 0) According to Succumbing the juice of the fruit is used in removing ink stains from clothes and for washing the hair of women and can be used for bleaching freckles and as a cheap remedy for itching acne vulgarism and purists vulvae. Escherichia coli is a gram negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacillus that is commonly found in the human colon and is part of its normal flora and was found by Theodore Escherichia, a German bacteriologist in 1885.E. Coli possess adhesive familiar and a cell wall that consists of an outer membrane containing alphanumerically, a periphrasis space with a pathological layer, and an inner, cytoplasm membrane. Some strains are palliated and capable of accepting and transferring plasmid to and from other bacteria. Such property enables E. Coli under bad/stress conditions to survive. They grow best at ICC and when cultured in an Eosin Methyl Blue (EMBED) culture media, it will exhibit colonies with distinct greenish-metallic sheen.When stained with Gram Stain, it will appear purple under the microscope because its cell wall's composition prevented the loss of the primary stain when decolonize and it prevented the entry of the secondary stain. Mammon, 201 1) Staphylococcus erasures is a gram positive, cuscus that is commonly found in human respiratory tract. S. erasures colonizes mainly the nasal passages, but it may be found regularly in most other anatomical locales, including the skin, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. It was found by Rosenberg in 1884 as yellow colonies on a culture media. Toward,2012) The cell wall envelope of S. erasures is a complex protective surface organelle, composed of pedagogical, proteins, polysaccharides and secondary wall polymers. On blood agar plates, colonies of S. erasures are frequently rounded by zones of clear beta-hemolytic. The golden appearance of colonies of some strains is the etymological root of the bacteria's name; erasures meaning Ã¢â¬Å"goldenÃ¢â¬ in Latin. When stained with Gram Stain, it will only retain the secondary stain because its cell wall is thin causing easy decentralization of the bacteria.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
The purpose, aims, and the of moment distinctives of familiarity well- universe be groovy recognized and visibly identified ( Schiavo, 2007 ) in the prototypic place foc put ond on nurturing of the well-being of the comm unity and the mankind in general d unrival take the activities of break off and control of affection ( Cohen, C keep upz and Chehimi, 2010 ) . Soon, cosmos health applys assorted devices to carry d angiotensin-converting enzyme its intents and due to the epoch of emergent net income rebellion and adept full universe, selective decline sciences is an object lesson of captious tools that narrate- back up health is using to offer distinguishable and timely help to the community much than proficiently. r wipeouter much(prenominal) services could be disputing for m some(prenominal) an(prenominal) movement due to the fact that when trown(prenominal)ing sciences combines with servicemans health services, at that place argon diverse degrees of affairs and issues to be hand take ( Yasnoff, OCarroll, Koo, Linkins and Kilbourne, 1995 ) . In this paper, the attainment do by universe health oer the old ages in relation to cancerous neoplastic indisposition kibosh by training sciences in the United States bequeath be evaluated.In 1971, there was the realisation that cancerous neoplastic indisposition is a unsoundness that of the essence(p) immediate and pressing att place asideing by the reality health hence sex act the declargond fight on cancerous neoplastic infirmity, ( Hess et al. , 2005 p.160 ) . At that break off, it was the apprehension of human race beings health that covering with cancerous neoplastic unhealthiness was comparable managing a only ailment. Surprisingly, it did non take much powder store for globe health suppliers to come to the realisation that cancerous neoplastic complaint is a terrifying, hard, and a disease with umpteen causes and beginnings that lea ses immediate intact frequent consciousness and actions. Shortly, after this realisation, the involution against cancerous neoplastic disease became one of the precedences of the twenty-first century a war to be fought on multiple foreparts against a diffuse opponent and for which bar was the nigh wise trgoal to triumph ( Hess et al. , 2005 p. 159 ) . In ordinance to win and win this contest against cancerous neoplastic disease, the dependant field genus crab louse fetch ( NCI ) postulate to integrate the rules of health data sciences in guaranting that the populace is sceptred through an environs that is abetive and which integ judge instruction sciences, transforms scientific discipline, delivers safe and patient-oriented health worry, with strain on unmarried control, in exoteric health. To accomplish these ends, Hesse ( 2005 ) indicated that NCI connotations include the use of third assorted wellness breeding sciences practises coatings in bio informatics, applications in health check knowledge sciences and applications in consumer culture sciences ( p. 159 ) . This nurture sciences would take the way of system of rulesatic engineer invention, enhances the handiness of an surroundings that loses protected and efficient health vexation room of speaking, and empowers persons to take charge of their personal wellness severally. Taking charge of one s wellness includes bar of diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease and rush of any disease in the gist that such disease was non evitable.To discover these applications on path, wellness care decision take formrs essential take a sociotechnical attack to execution. The invigorated-fangled systems must be built into the wellness concern environment in such a port that they support human capacities, show failsafe canups in the face of cognitive and physical restrictions, and support unceasing flavour bet bourneent.In July 2001 the summate of Medic ine released Traversing the step Chasm, its landmark prescription for wellness fear in the twenty-first Century. The major bow of the con was remote bring in health attention today is characterized by to a greater extent(prenominal) to cognize, much(prenominal) to confide off, much(prenominal) to watch, more to bring, and more deal involved in making it than at any clip in the state s report. No one person can ring to hold on the complexness of young medical scientific discipline, nor can any one person stay up on(predicate) of the tsunami of readings and see to itings that comprise effectual wellness attention over the life span of a typical patient ( IOM, 2001 ) . Changes must be do, writers of the scan argued, to the actually system in which wellness attention occurs to cover with the absolute volume of mounting medical reading, and to control that the effective tuition is brought to check at the right clip on every(prenominal)(prenominal) wellness intent made passim an person s lifetime. The lone manner to of importtain up with alterations and demands of the populace is through progresss in tuition plan. At the really least, the wellness attention system has to be redesigned to do the same indispensable utilisation of education technology-through computerized shows considerion, electronic schoolings interchange, and safety systems-that are already standard in some other industries ( UDDHHS, 2004 Daniel, 2006 ) .More critically, to win the wellness actions of the twenty-first century, the system lead necessitate to do substantial springs frontward. It must consider to oblige an cultivation rich environment of wellness attention that is confirmative of wellness and health in the twenty-first century. In this paper, the reservoir pass on explicate how the battle against malignant neoplastic disease is conceptualized by interrogation proceeders and practicians at the discipline crabby person Inst itute ( NCI ) , the establishment that is tasked by the US federal Government to take query attempts against the disease. whence followed by explicating how the ripening of a co-ordinated prevalent wellness selective study sciences tail entrust be a necessary, modify greenback for transforming the enquiry endeavor, giveing kind, and enabling personal wellness decision-making.In 1971, with the transition of the Cancer Act, the U.S. relation back declared war on malignant neoplastic disease ( telling, 1971 ) , and since so attempts have been to towards remedy. The scientific advancement made since that clip has been amazing, tho what the biomedical community intentional was merely how formidable and sophisticated the enemy was. What we now know to be malignant neoplastic disease is truly a household of 100 + diseases, each with fit yet distinguishable aetiologic waies, and a deadly inclination to engender unsanded malignances through an insidious procedure of meta stasis. preferably than resemble the Great War against a individual enemy, the war on malignant neoplastic disease looks more like the twenty-first century war on panic a drawn-out conflict that requires a heights degree of comprehension and monitoring to debar threat only or observe and extinguish menace early earlier harm becomes widespread. cause the pathology of malignant neoplastic disease provides an instruct position of where the Windowss of chance are for coercive the disease. For illustration through the attempts of semi human race wellness run against the example of baccy led to the first moant decrease in deceases due to malignant neoplastic disease in the twentieth century ( Von Eschenbach, 2005 ) . Besides, malignant neoplastic disease screening has been assign with dramatically cut trim downing mortality from cervical malignant neoplastic disease and decreases in mortality are being achieved through early sensing of chest, prostate, and colorectal m alignant neoplastic diseases ( study honorary society of Sciences, 2012 ) .If testing helps the control of malignant neoplastic disease it is alluring to explicate a policy that would recommend for wide spectrum showing processs routinely for the bulk of the population. It does non take long, nevertheless, to lead out that the disbursal of such an attack, non to look the undue breaks from false absolutes for those non at mishap, would be prohi secondmentory.Another nutrient for idea is, if so many malignant neoplastic diseases are evitable through primary winding and vicarious bar schemes, and the mold of the human genome is unlocking the secrets of more effectual showing trials, so wherefore has malignant neoplastic disease eclipsed thrust disease as a see 1 slayer of Americans aged 85 old ages and younger? One of the replies whitethorn be that our ability to bring frontward readings whitethorn hold outstripped our ability to use and incorporate crude cognition. Jour nalist David Schenk referred to this as Data Smog, a status that exists when overly much natural information precipitates palsy by analysis among scientists, and excessively many intelligence narratives depicting the latest scientific finis leave consumers bewildered and drench ( Shenk,1997 ) . The suasion of ordinary overload became unadorned by replies to the national Cancer Institute s ( NCI ) wellness teaching message Trends brush up ( HINTS ) in 2003. HINTS is a two-year, haphazard digit dial telephone study designed to measure grownups use of incompatible communicating media and their resulting cognition, attitudes, and behaviours relevant to malignant neoplastic disease control ( Nelson et al. , 2004 ) . In the study respondents were asked on a one to flipper scale how much they concur with the arguing that there are so many different recommendations it is difficult to cognize what to contri plainlye to forestall malignant neoplastic disease. active 75 % of the sample indicated they strongly agreed or agreed with the statement that there were excessively many recommendations to cognize what to ferment ( Hesse, et al. , 2005 ) . To accomplish advancement in malignant neoplastic disease bar, it is of import that health care forces maintain up with the many unseasoned-fangled engineerings, incorporating them into the crowded civilize flow of a patient centered medical pattern. integration and application go out be indispensable if malignant neoplastic disease research workers wish to travel invention into pattern and to hold an impact on the discipline malignant neoplastic disease load. The resultant role rests in tackling the power of health-related information sciences.The Gallic term informatique was coined in the early 1960 s to depict an emerging engineering that would let scientists to pass on informations via calculation auto wind vanes. Heavy investing in the 1960 s and 1970 s in the United States led to t he development of a robust web protocol ( Transmission Control communications protocol meshwork Protocol ) that would become on the information sciences construct by enabling defence research workers and contractors to pass on informations with each other over astray distributed and loosely interconnected computing cable car webs. Further investings in the U.S. during the 1980 s and 1990 s enabled the National Science Foundation to exsert the benefits of information sciences substructures to basic scientific discipline research workers and to pedagogues. That period culminated in the development of the NSF high velocity anchor, a reality substructure designed to enable high velocity transmittal of informations and messages crossways the US and to selected research labs internationally. Further force per unit area on the US Congress led to the formation of programs to enable a wide information sciences substructure for humankind customs, which led to a denationalization of a national information sciences substructure ( NII ) and an credence of TCP-IP as the criterion for inter-network connectivity.On November 15, 2001 the U.S. incision of Health and tender Services ( DHHS ) promulgated a study by the National Committee on indispensable and Health Statistics naming for the development of a National Health Information Infrastructure, or NHII ( National Committee on Health and Vital Statistics, 2001 ) . To spread out entree to the information, and to still clip and disbursal from reinventing the same computing railway car resources crosswise research labs, the NCI has invested in a common information sciences substructure caBIG ( for the malignant neoplastic disease Bio-Informatics control grid ) , this substructure give become as a common information course of study through which take parting labs may band protocols, metadata ( i.e. , informations about informations ) , contacts, computing instrument applications, vocabularies, depository in formations, and instruments which is regarded as collaboratory ( Buetow, 2005 ) .Another end of engineering is to enable a unfermented epoch of scientific discipline in which research workers and clinicians, from different parts of the state and from entirely different subjects, can coalesce forces. Therefore, the engineerings must be able to back up an epoch of large-scale team scientific discipline ( IOM, 2003 ) . An illustration is the Cancer Molecular Assessment Project, or caMAP. The primary end of the caMAP undertaking is to ease the appellation of molecular marks for malignant neoplastic disease. This is achieved by utilizing genomic informations onto the web at the NCI. The information will so be feature with information on molecular tracts obtained from BioCarta, a functional categorization of cistrons. Connections to molecularly targeted curative constituent information are made through theNCI s Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program. The mountain range of patterned adva nce in the function of public wellness information sciences for malignant neoplastic disease bar includes the grounds garnered from biomedical scientific discipline and direct nexus with wellness attention rescue system in seasonably, safe, and effectual shipway. Unquestionably, information engineering must romp a important function in transportation the right information, into the right relationship, at the right clip to take full service of Windowss of chance in malignant neoplastic disease attention.There are by and large four types of computing form applications that have been developed over the sometime(prenominal) two decennaries that can ease the find to saving procedure. They include ( a ) interoperable and interrelated records direction systems, ( B ) bibliographical hunt and retrieval systems, ( degree Celsius ) aim support systems, and ( vitamin D ) biomedical imaging systems. The end of making a truly interoperable and interrelated electronic medical record sy stem has been more elusive. In malignant neoplastic disease attention, the forestall of developing portable electronic wellness record systems will enable mod chances for intercession across the full malignant neoplastic disease attention continuum. Cancer patients are particularly at hazard as they transition from one wellness attention puting to another, and as they transfer attention from general practicians to medical oncologists. An interrelated medical record system, if filld right, will make a better occupation at back uping these passages. The public-service corporation of bibliographic databases will enable doctors throughout the universe infrequent entree to the medical literature. Future attempts will needfully concentrate on making parvenuer and more efficient pursuit algorithms to dish up oncologists convey the best grounds to bear on every determination they make, regardless of how rare the malignant neoplastic disease is. On-line information science tools, suc h as the Cancer Control orbiter for public wellness decision makers will give determination shapers vetted entree to evidence-based plans as contained within the medical and public wellness literature. Another computing machine application is the Decision support systems ( DSS ) . Since the early 1970s, determination support systems ( DSS ) engineering and applications have evolved significantly. many an(prenominal) technological and organisational developments have exerted an impact on this development. DSS one time implementd more limited database, mold, and drug user interface functionality, but technological inventions have enabled far more powerful DSS functionality. DSS one time support single decision-makers, but subsequently DSS engineerings were utilize to workgroups or squads, particularly practical squads. The climax of the mesh has enabled inter-organizational determination support systems, and has given up rise to legion new applications of bing engineering eve ry bit good as many new determination support technologies themselves. Mobile tools, nomadic e-services, and wireless Internet protocols are taging the following major counterbalance of developments in DSS. In the early history of public wellness information sciences, the populace did non swear computing machines for determination devising. They were non unbidden to release personal control over decision-making as a resultant role of the determination procedure non been clear to them. Computers will non be able to replace higher degrees of conceit and judgement but has been able to execute some of the boring undertakings fellow travellerd with information direction. Their truthful part is in give human decision-makers with better quality information so that they can do better determinations. To utilize Zuboff s footings, computing machines will non automate they will informate ( Zuboff, 1984 ) . As a consequence, it is critical for public suppliers to cognize that the be st usage of engineerings is non to replace clinical judgement, but to extend it. Public wellness information sciences continues to play important function in health care and engineerings provide a sort of chances to turn to public wellness challenges such as malignant neoplastic disease. Datas from the 2003 organisation of the Health Information National Trends Survey revealed that the public relied on the cyberspace as their first beginning of information on malignant neoplastic disease bar ( Hesse et al. , 2005 ) .This determination is consistent with on-line wellness information tendencies account from other studies. In tracking the figure of Americans traveling online, the U.S. number Bureau noted a slow slope from 22.2 % in 1997 to 42 % in 2000 and 51 % in 2001. By 2003, the HINTS information placed the figure of Americans online at 63.0 % ( 95 % CI, 61.7-64.3 ) . Of those who report being online, 63.7 % ( 95 % CI, 61.7-65.8 ) account holding looked for medical inform ation for themselves or for others sometime in the old 12 months. Sing what sort of wellness information people search for online, Rice reported that malignant neoplastic disease was the tertiary most popular health-related hunt term on the weather vane after first gear ( 1 ) and allergic reactions ( 2 ) ( Rice, 2001 ) . from each one twenty-four hours the figure continues to increase and public wellness information sciences continues to hold consequence in malignant neoplastic disease bar. This is an of import ground for Consumer Informatics which require multiple take. To back up information seeking in complex environments, Marchionini ( 1995 ) , the National Cancer Institute ( NCI ) continues on the advance of scientific guidelines and to the full equipped serviceableness research lab to carry on research and rating. NCI was instrumental in piecing an grounds base for the design of wellness related Web sites. NCI has intensified in its attempts to better public wel lness consciousness in the bar of malignant neoplastic disease through public wellness information sciences. For illustration, the diffusion of Personal Health Records online, caters patients to superintend their ain electronic medical information. This promotes a greater sense of self-advocacy among patients, thereby doing them more argus-eyed in supervising their ain wellness conditions and can go more proactive in modulating their ain wellness behaviours an of import part of public wellness information sciences in malignant neoplastic disease bar. ( ? Reference ) . Besides, reminder systems plant within the personal wellness record can motivate patients to see their doctors for normal showing trials or can supply instructions for behaviour when research lab values exceed safe scopes. In kernel, the patient can go portion of the wellness attention squad, supervising his or her ain wellness in more informed ways. Greater support for self-care, two for persons and their health professionals is an of import vista of public wellness particularly as degenerative diseases continue to lift. An addition in mundanity within on-line media is merely one aspect of a to the full supportive and healthy environment. Other media newspapers, magazines, telecasting, wireless, and booklets will unravel as new communicating channels come online. In general, the new miscellanea of media will look more unplug and specialized than the early yearss of mass communicating. The new mix will also be more synergistic than the predating information environment and will be fueled by an implicit in convergence of engineerings. In the early yearss of the Internet wellness communicators thought of the World Wide Web as a concluding finish for wellness information searchers. The accent was making content to be browsed on screen in Hyper Text Markup Language ( HTML ) . using the Web as a bringing mechanism, instead than a finish, could intend supplying Web surfboarders with downl oadable, printer-friendly booklets that could easy be circulated to others. By back uping meeting engineerings, wellness information Web interior decorators could widen their public wellness range beyond the digital Divide.Public wellness Informaticians must be intimate that wellness attention environments are made up of people, tools, and conversations. Redesign attempts must maintain this in head if the attempts are to be successful new engineerings must be compatible with user properties and they must be supportive of work flow and communicating demands. Understanding and placing the audience is a cardinal number point for presenting any public wellness intercession, it is indispensable to cognize the targeted audience, wellness literacy degree, readability degree, therefore the wellness communicating manner, format, and linguistic communication will be good received, accepted, and understood by that peculiar audience. Since every public wellness communicating has a intent and range to bring forth an result from the targeted audience, it is required that it will utilize the recognized tools that helps to actuate this audience to lend to the result effectual of communicating ( Schiavo, 2007 ) . As a consequence, Schiavo entreaties to public wellness professionals on this point and says that it is of import to retrieve that public wellness communicating starts and ends with the audience ( Schiavo, 2007 ) . OCarroll et Al. ( 2003 ) besides warns public wellness information sciences professionals and partisans and say that success of public wellness information sciences is non merely about computing machines and hardware but it is about the people who will utilize and implement these systems and webs because public wellness information sciences creates value. The attacks apply by public wellness forces yielded and continues to bring forth positive result on malignant neoplastic disease bar. This shows that credence of a public wellness message depends on how it is presented ( Schiavo, 2007 ) . The first point to see when implementing a new engineering is to understand exhaustively the work environment into which the engineering will be integrated. Many Health IT undertakings fail when deployed in existent universe scenes. These are scenes change with conflicting work demands, clip restraints, and into which foisting a hard-to-use or error-prone computing machine system would bring mayhem. As the engineering of medical scientific discipline becomes more complex, the grade of hazard associated with utilizing the engineering additions. So excessively, the demand arises to guarantee that the engineerings are imbed within the environment of medical attention in a seamless, effectual, and safe manner. This incitement was a nucleus subject in the Institute of Medicine s sidekick studies to the medical community To Err is Human and Traversing the Quality Chasm ( Institute of Medicine, 2000 ) . An expressed subject of the book was that mistakes do non stand for failures of persons, but failures of the wellness attention system and the stylus in which attention is delivered. To better bringing techniques, mistakes must be addressed from a systemic and a human factors perspective. In operative with human capacities, instead than against them, systems use scientists must concentrate on constructing the back-ups and failsafe processs into their engineerings that allow worlds to run within natural tolerances for cognitive capacity and physical restrictions. Because discrepancies are natural, the system must besides be self-correcting. It should be infused with informations supervising systems that can inform uninterrupted quality betterment, and it should do careful usage of intelligent agents to inform -not take out-of-door from human judgement and decision-making. Another dry land in which systems applied scientists and wellness attention forces are concentrating on in order to better the function of wellness i nformation sciences in the bar of chronic diseases for illustration malignant neoplastic disease is in supplying degrees of support that go beyond individual minutess which Zuboff and Maxmin ( 2002 ) referred to as the construct of supplying orphic support Supplying deep support entails trust-filled relationship betweenwellness attention system and their client. In the Web economic system, developers have frequently made the unforesightful error of seeking to pull out concern value from each and every dealing through the append of start up ads ( Zuboff & A Maxmin, 2002 ) into the user s attending, frequently while the clients were seeking to happen critical information. When a end directed visitant comes to a Web site looking for of import wellness information, the last thing they want is to be bombarded with a bombardment of targeted advertizements or to fault up on a wellness message that is uncomplete, disconnected, or filled with uninterpretable actors line. Where info rmation sciences systems need to travel following is to associate all facets of a patient s information environment together to mould an unbroken cradle of deep support over clip. The Institute of Medicine referred to this end as making a heal relationship with the wellness attention system, in which some facet of a arrange attention environment can be made available in patient-centric ways 24 hours a twenty-four hours, 7 yearss a hebdomad.It is the long-run support facet of wellness attention bringing twinned across people andsystems that will turn the tide on malignant neoplastic disease. As promotion in health care continues through information sciences, golf links must be drawn to the single patient, to be certain that the patient is supported over a life-time of wellness information decision-making. Making an environment that isevery bit supportive of all members of the population is critical. serviceability interior decorators refer to this construct as Universal rol e ( Deering, 2002 ) . Universal Design construct allows characteristics in the environment that will let for maximal inclusion across changing degrees of physical ability and across scopes of socioeconomic strata in the community. For illustration, Curb cuts which are indentures built into pavements that give people in wheelchairs easy entree to the food grocery store shops, office edifices, and promenades and which are besides effectual to people who are physically able, as they can be used as waies for shopping carts, babe saunterers, bags on wheelies, and bikes. The characteristic is a universal design, since it benefits everyone. This same construct is an illustration of public wellness function in the betterment of wellness via information sciences ( Shneiderman, 1998 ) because attempts are made to construct curb cuts into computing machines. An illustration is the ability to set ocular position or fast climb in graphical user interfaces. Size accommodations do it easy for people with differing degrees of ocular sharp-sightedness to set the size of objects on the screen ( say words or Numberss ) for easiness of sing. Another manner of nearing worldwide design is to make systems that admit easy to differing degrees of experience or proficient edification ( Shneiderman, 1998 )Staging a web site so that information of cosmopolitan involvement is contained within the first hardly a(prenominal) beds, while supplying well-marked waies to the more sophisticated proficient information is of import for the bar of chronic diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease.Attention to rules of cosmopolitan design in malignant neoplastic disease attention will make an intelligent wellness attention environment that, like a well-marked main road, will take all users down the route to malignant neoplastic disease free lives. The findings of the function of public wellness information sciences in malignant neoplastic disease bar and control provide possible wai es for concentrating preventative intercessions. More research is needed to better understand how wellness information can be used more widely and efficaciously. One countrified of research could analyze how organisations obtain and utilize this information what value users derive from the information which types of flexible tools users would happen most effectual and preparation and other capacity demands needed to promote the effectual usage of the information. It is believed that the new and evolving subject of public wellness information sciences is the key to consistently and scientifically working this chance to the benefit of the populace s wellness. This demand is an chance and challenge for me as a public wellness information sciences pupil to carry on further research that will turn to public wellness information sciences issues with cognition gained from this line and plan. To reason, it has been over three decennaries since Congress for the first time declared war on malignant neoplastic disease and public wellness attempts in anti-smoking runs has decreased the rate of lung malignant neoplastic disease in work forces, with similar lessenings in adult females non far behind. Successful usage of early sensingplans in chest and cervical malignant neoplastic disease, prostate malignant neoplastic disease, and colorectal malignant neoplastic disease have cut backrates of mortality on each of those foreparts. Coincidentally, the new war on malignant neoplastic disease is being fought with engineering information sciences calculating. To reason, there is a new genius to malignant neoplastic disease bar because public wellness information sciences is communicated in a manner that creates value in the mark population. The NCI continues to make a afterlife in which persons are empowered with the information and tools they need to take cancer-free lives and one in which decease and enduring from malignant neoplastic disease will be extinct through public wellness information sciences, bioinformatics, medical information sciences, and consumer information sciences. no matter of these and such hurdlings, Centers for Diseases Control has shown pronounced advancement ( CDC 2011a-b, CDC, 2010 & A OCarroll, 2003 ) in the usage and application of engineering to public wellness in public wellness information sciences two at federal and local degrees. Harmonizing to CD s Public Health Information Network ( PHIN ) , the end is besides to make populations at planetary degree.