Tuesday, December 31, 2019

What Is the Capgras Delusion

In 1932, French psychiatrist Joseph Capgras and his intern Jean Reboul-Lachaux described Madame M., who insisted that her husband was actually an impostor who looked exactly like him. She did not see just one impostor husband, but at least 80 different ones over the course of ten years. In fact, doppelgangers replaced many of the people in Madame M.s life, including her children, who she believed had been abducted and substituted with identical babies. Who were these faux humans and where were they coming from? It turns out they were actually the individuals themselves — her husband, her children — but they didnt feel familiar to Madame M., even though she could recognize that they looked the same.   The Capgras Delusion Madame M. had the Capgras Delusion, which is the belief that people, often loved ones, are not who they appear to be. Instead, people who experience the Capgras Delusion believe that these people have been substituted by doppelgangers or even robots and aliens who have crept into the flesh of unwitting humans. The delusion can also extend to animals and objects. For example, someone with Capgras Delusion might believe that their favorite hammer has been replaced by an exact duplicate.   These beliefs can be incredibly unsettling. Madame M. believed that her true husband had been murdered, and filed divorce from her replacement husband. Alan Davies lost all affection for his wife, calling her Christine Two to differentiate her from his real wife, Christine One. But not all responses to the Capgras Delusion are negative. Another unnamed individual, though bewildered by the appearance of who he felt were a fake wife and children, never appeared agitated or angry toward them. Causes of the Capgras Delusion The Capgras Delusion can arise in many settings. For example, in someone with schizophrenia, Alzheimers, or another cognitive disorder, the Capgras Delusion may be one of several symptoms. It can also develop in someone who sustains brain damage, like from a stroke or carbon monoxide poisoning. The delusion itself can be temporary or permanent.   Based on studies involving individuals with very specific brain lesions, the main brain areas thought to be involved in Capgras Delusion are the inferotemporal cortex, which aids in facial recognition, and the limbic system, which is responsible for emotions and memory.   There are several explanations for what might happen on a cognitive level.   One theory says that to identify your mom as your mom, your brain must not only (1) recognize your mom, but (2) have an unconscious, emotional response, like a feeling of familiarity, when you see her. This unconscious response confirms to your brain that, yes, this is your mom and not just someone who looks like her. The Capgras syndrome occurs when these two functions both still work but can no longer link up, so that  when you see your mom, you dont get that extra confirmation of her feeling familiar. And without that feeling of familiarity, you end up thinking shes an impostor even though you may still recognize other things in your life.   One issue with this hypothesis: people with the Capgras Delusion usually believe that only certain people in their lives are doppelgà ¤ngers, not everyone else. Its unclear why the Capgras Delusion would select  some people, but not others.   Another theory suggests that the Capgras Delusion is a memory management issue. Researchers cite this example: Think of the brain as a computer, and your memories as files. When you meet a new person, you create a new file. Any interaction you have had with that person from that point forward will be stored in that file, so that when you meet someone you already know, you access that file and recognize them. Someone with Capgras Delusion, on the other hand, may create new files instead of accessing the old ones, so that, depending on the person, Christine becomes Christine One and Christine Two, or your one husband becomes husband 80. Treating the Capgras Delusion Since scientists arent quite sure what causes Capgras Delusion, there isnt a prescribed treatment. If the Capgras Delusion is one of multiple symptoms resulting from a particular disorder like schizophrenia or Alzheimers, common treatments for those disorders, like antipsychotics for schizophrenia or medications that help boost memory for Alzheimers, may help. In the case of brain lesions, the brain could eventually reestablish the connections between emotion and recognition. One of the most effective treatments, however, is a positive, welcoming environment where you enter into the world of the individual with Capgras Delusion. Ask yourself what it must be like to be suddenly thrown into a world where your loved ones are impostors, and reinforce, not correct, what they already know. As with many plotlines for science fiction movies, the world becomes a much scarier place when you dont know if someone is actually who they appear to be, and you need to stick together to stay safe.   Sources Car crash victim wins  £130,000 for impostor wife, Amelia Gentleman, The GuardianAlexander, M. P. â€Å"Capgras syndrome: a reduplicative phenomenon.†Ã‚  Neurocase, vol. 4, no. 3, Jan. 1998, pp. 255–264., doi:10.1093/neucas/4.3.255. ​Ellis, H.d., and Andrew W. Young. â€Å"Accounting for delusional misidentifications.†Ã‚  Face and Mind, Nov. 1998, pp. 225–244., doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524205.003.0008.Hirstein, W., and V. S. Ramachandran. â€Å"Capgras syndrome: a novel probe for understanding the neural representation of the identity and familiarity of persons.†Ã‚  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 264, no. 1380, 1997, pp. 437–444., doi:10.1098/rspb.1997.0062.

Monday, December 23, 2019

The Lottery by Shirley Jackson - 799 Words

In many stories, settings are constructed to help build the mood and to foreshadow of things to come. The Lottery by Shirley Jackson is a story in which the setting sets up the reader to think of positive outcomes. However, this description of the setting foreshadows exactly the opposite of what is to come. In addition, the theme that we learn of at the end leads us to think of where the sanity of some human beings lies. The story begins with the establishment of the setting. To begin, Shirley Jackson tells the reader what time of day and what time of year the story takes place. This is important to get the reader to focus on what a typical day it is in this small town. The time of day is set in the morning and the time of year is early†¦show more content†¦For instance, someone gave little Davy Hutchinson a few pebbles so that he will then be able to participate in the stoning of his own mother. In the story, many parts of the ritual had been changed or even long forgotten by most of the people. This fact in itself, along with a few other clues, tells me that not everyone agrees with it. One character says, seems like theres no time at all between lotteries anymore. This meansShow MoreRelatedThe Lottery, By Shirley Jackson1195 Words   |  5 PagesOn the surface, Shirley Jackson’s short story, â€Å"The Lottery,† reads as a work of horror. There is a village that holds an annual lottery where the winner is stoned to death so the village and its people could prosper. Some underlying themes include: the idea that faith and tradition are often followed blindly, and those who veer away from tradition are met with punishment, as well as the idea of a herd mentality and bystander apathy. What the author manages to do successfully is that she actuallyRead MoreThe Lottery by Shirley Jackson757 Words   |  4 Pagessucceed but many fail just like the main character Te ssie Hutchinson in Shirley Jackson’s short story â€Å"The Lottery†. When someone hears the word â€Å"lottery†, he or she may think that someone will be rewarded with prize. But â€Å"The Lottery† By Shirley Jackson is different than what one thinks. In the story, a lottery is going to be conducted not like Mega Million or Powerball one play here. In the story, the person who wins the lottery is stoned to death instead of being rewarded with the prize. TessieRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson931 Words   |  4 PagesIn 1948 Shirley Jackson composed the controversial short story â€Å"The Lottery.† Generally speaking, a title such as â€Å"The Lottery† is usually affiliated with an optimistic outlook. However, Jackson’s approach is quite unorthodox and will surely leave readers contemplating the intent of her content. The story exposes a crude, senseless lottery system in which random villagers are murdered amongst their peers. Essentially, the lottery system counteracts as a form of population control, but negatives easilyRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson1504 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson In The Lottery Shirley Jackson fills her story with many literary elements to mask the evil. The story demonstrates how it is in human nature to blindly follow traditions. Even though some people have no idea why they follow these traditions. The title of the story plays a role in how Shirley Jackson used some literary elements to help mask the evils and develop the story. The title â€Å"The Lottery† serves as an allegory. When people think of the lottery majorityRead More`` The Lottery `` By Shirley Jackson894 Words   |  4 Pagesshort story â€Å"The Lottery†, author Shirley Jackson demonstrates Zimbardo’s concepts in three different areas: Authority figures, Tradition and Superstition, and Loyalty. The first concept Jackson portrays in â€Å"The Lottery† is the authority figures. Jackson indicates that the lottery is being held in the town center by one authority figure, Mr. Summers, annually on June 27th. Every June 27th, without fail, townspeople gather in the town square to participate in the annually lottery even though mostRead MoreThe Lottery, By Shirley Jackson1510 Words   |  7 PagesShirley Jackson’s â€Å"The Lottery† illustrates several aspects of the darker side of human nature. The townspeople in Jackson’s â€Å"The Lottery† unquestioningly adhere to a tradition which seems to have lost its relevance in their lives. The ritual that is the lottery shows how easily and willingly people will give up their free will and suspend their consciences to conform to tradition and people in authority. The same mindless complacency and obedience shown by the villagers in Jackson’s story are seenRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson8 11 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"The Lottery† was published by Shirley Jackson. The story was true expression of Jackson’s genuine thoughts about human beings and their heinous competence in an annual village event for corn harvest . First, her used to word symbolized main point of the story. Second, Jackson was inspired by few historical events happened in the past and a life incident in her life. Lastly, She was able to accomplish the connection between historical and biographical with the story. Therefore, Shirley Jackson’sRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson934 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson signifies the physical connection between the villagers and their unwillingness to give up their tradition. â€Å"The Lottery† is very unpredictable and quite misleading. The black box has no functionality, except every June 27th. Shirley Jackson depicts the black box as an important and traditional tool. Although the villagers in â€Å"The Lottery† are terrified of the goal of the lottery and the black box, they are unwilling to let go of the tradition. Shirley Jackson portraysRead MoreThe Lottery by Shirley Jackson1764 Words   |  7 Pagesfilled with excitement and eeriness, leaving the reader speechless. The Lottery , a short story written by famous writer Shirley Jackson, created an uproar on June 26, 1948, when it was published in the magazine The New Yorker (Ball). The gothic thriller, set in an unknown time and place, shares the tradition of a small town, a little larger than three hundred people, in which a drawing is held once a year. In this â€Å"Lottery,† each family’s husband draws a slip of paper from a black box. The husbandRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson1391 Words   |  6 PagesMarina Grishechkina Professor Abbott English 126 April 6, 2016 â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson â€Å"The Lottery† introduces the reader to a cruel ritual of the village where people gather together to participate in the annual elimination of a random villager. Superficially friendly mood in the town at the beginning of the story was replaced by hostile and violent human behavior at the end. Warm and sunny summer morning did

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Product Design Coursework Free Essays

The aim of this report is to carry out a feasibility study for the development and the manufacture of a novel synthetic fibre to be used to make leisure clothing aimed at the spring and summer market, as asked by our board of directors. I will present a report addressing the project in terms of the Innovation Cycle for product development. This shall cover the definition and evaluation of the products, their form, market and manufacture in terms of the Product Innovation Major Steps, which include: Needs: What needs should the product fill? Ideas: What different products could satisfy these needs? Selection: What ideas are the most promising? Manufacture: How can we make the product in commercial quantities? Innovation Cycle: Product Innovation involves the introduction of a new good or service that is new or substantially improved from previous versions. We will write a custom essay sample on Product Design Coursework or any similar topic only for you Order Now Innovation is not just about new products, it is a whole new approach to business. The novel synthetic fibre that I will analyse is Nylon with main uses in clothing and footwear. Nylon is a commodity chemical as it is produced in high volumes and yields low profits and so it has a low added value. There is no large scale need for chemists and engineers in commodity chemicals. Needs: What needs should the product fill? The product should fill the customer’s needs and to find the needs of the customer, we need to do market research and ask the customers directly what they require through questionnaires or interviews. This is known as primary research as answers are directly answered to the companies needs. Once loads of information has been collected, the customers needs have to be interpreted and taken into consideration. This information can then be used into product specifications and therefore products are produced depending on customer needs. For example, customer needs for the manufacture of Nylon to produce leisure clothing. Essential: o Light weight o Strong o Comfortable Desirable: o Wear resistance o Long lasting o Easy to wash o Easy to iron Useful: o Cheap Specifying a benchmark would be one of the final stages in the needs. The new developed product must meet up to standards with either existing products or an idealised product. If this is not the case then and the benchmark cannot be achieved or surpassed, then it is not worth developing the product. Ideas: What different products could satisfy these needs? The next step in the innovation cycle is to generate ideas. Most of the source of ideas comes from the: Development team. These people research into the product into great detail and most of the ideas are generated by the developing team. Customers. Questionnaires and interviews are analysed and a different view of ideas are produced. The interviews and questionnaires can be very important as the customers will be the ones who buy the products at the end and they may also be using similar or existing products. Although questionnaires can sometimes be unreliable if not enough data is collected. Competitors. Useful data can be obtained if you as a company are selling similar products. Consultants. These are often not as useful as customers or the development team. Literature. This will have a large range of views and if researched into properly, books, patents and trade information will produce some excellent ideas. Product development teams generate ideas by brainstorming which is a group exercise and mind mapping which is usually done individually. In developing a product, it requires up to one hundred ideas to find an idea which is really worth going for. To reduce the amount of ideas we have to only the good ideas we have to organise ideas into specific categories which may require more brainstorming. The more ideas are organised, the more we would be able to realise if they are strengths or weaknesses in organisations. Selection: What ideas are the most promising? From all the ideas we have generated, we only take very few good ideas to take forwards for production. To select these few good ideas to take forward we need a Screening Criteria which would select the best ideas. This selection process now would require scientific and engineering judgement. These are: o Safety – Make sure that the product (nylon) would be safe to produce and wear. o Low environmental impact – Make sure that nylon produced clothes and any by-products are not dangerous to the environment o Low cost – Make sure that the method of producing nylon is the cheapest with the highest return for money o Minimum risk – Make the manufacture of nylon economically feasible o Engineering ease – Make the manufacture of nylon technically feasible After the screening process and choosing the best ideas, we now need to do a risk assessment. This will identify and catalogue all risks of producing the product (nylon). Eliminating the risk will be the most important thing and then we can compare quantitatively the terms of the cost and time. Risk management also need to be put in place as to reduce risks or possible risks before proceeding, or accepting the risk and proceeding. This decision is based entirely upon management and the best option will be chosen for the organisation at that time. Manufacture: How can we make the product in commercial quantities? At this stage we are now ready to decide how to produce the product. We have the chemical product we need to manufacture; we have identified customer needs and generated enough ideas to fill this need. When considering the manufacturing process we need to take into account: o Raw materials o Demand for supply o Time taken for product to reach the market o Size of plant o Labour o Operating and capital costs of plant After the manufacturing costs of the product (nylon clothes), we need to consider the packaging. This should be: o Attractive o Waterproof to prevent water ruining the nylon After the packaging, we can finally sell the product. To get the product out onto the market we could: o Advertise in clothes shops o Advertise on TV After advertising, the product would have reached out to a far reaching population. How to cite Product Design Coursework, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Queen Elizabeth I Of England Essay Example For Students

Queen Elizabeth I Of England Essay Elizabeth was the unwanted daughter of King Henry VIII, the king who killed hermother, because she did not bear a son. Elizabeth grew up in a country at war with it selfin the wake of King Henrys religious reforms. Through no fault of her own, Elizabethwas cast aside by her own father; resulting in a lonely childhood and adolescence. Whileher half sister Mary I was queen, as a young women Elizabeth lived quietly, waiting forher opportunity to succeed. On November. 17, 1558, Mary died and Elizabeth began herreign. During her years as a queen, Elizabeth influenced England greatly, withwhich to this day the Elizabethan age is most often associated. Education was one of Elizabeths greatest influences on England. Perhaps herinfluence on the importance of education as a young girl and her longed desire to learnhelped her strive for this particular goal. Children in those days began their studies reallyearly in the morning. They were expected to work long hours with out getting distracted. Over the years her tutors wrote glowing reports on her excellent progress. At ten yearsold, Elizabeth was excellent at Latin, and she could speak Italian pretty well. She wasalso taught ancient and modern languages, religion, history, geography, mathematics,science, and music. She kept up her studies even when she became queen.(Zamoyska10-11) Queen Elizabeth introduced to her country the seeds of freedom, which Englishmen now took for granted. The growing number of printing presses made books morereadily available, because an increasing amount of people, both men and women beganAs a Protestant, Elizabeth influenced her countrys religious decisions. According to Zamoyska: While Mary was still queen of England, Elizabeth did not wantto risk her greatest opportunity of being next in line. She had a difficult task of having toconform openly to the Catholics, while still keeping support for the Protestants and theyounger generation that looked up to her. (19) Elizabeths first decisions bore on the religious issues. She turned the situationback to the state of things during the last years of Edward VI, allowing the repatriation of the Protestant leaders who had been driven out underMary.She didnt, howeverencourage further changes, and essentially supported the Church of England Moderate Protestantism had been practiced under Henry VIII , and under Edward VIeven more radical Protestant programs were implemented.. Mary in the other hand, hadrestored the Roman Catholic faith. Elizabeth herself was a moderate Protestant, and hersettlement excluded papal authority, and brought back the Book of Common Prayer. Thishowever did not recognize the demands of the extreme Puritans. During her reign a lot ofpressure continued, but she resisted. Eventually the Puritans were driven underground. One of her greatest fears was that an alliance of Catholic powers might force her out ofthe throne, and introduce again a Catholic monarch. Eventually Elizabeth send Englishforces to fight on the Protestant side: In the war of religion in France and the revolt of theDutch against Spanish rule. (Academic American Encyclopedia 141)The Spanish Armada was perhaps the greatest threat to Elizabeth. Intending this fleetto secure the deposition of Elizabeth in favor of himself, Philip II of Spain-Thus restoringCatholicism. The Naval battle in the English Channel devasted the Spanish flotilla. The use of the fire ships, English seaman ship and the Protestant Wind as theEnglish call it, were responsible for the English victory that turned out to be so famous. (Academic American Encyclopedia 142) Before the war, Queen Elizabeth made adramatic speech to her troops at Tulbury. She assured them that she had the heart andstomach of a king and she promised that we shall shortly have a famous victory overthese enemies of my God, my kingdom, and my people. She wore a gleaming silverarmor and a white velvet dress. She was not about to barricade herself into one of hercastles in this time of danger, but she was intending to show her country what a queencould be. The war was declared an English victory. Thus the defeat of the Armadastrengthened Elizabeths position as a figure of Protestantism. She was the one who inspite of everything, seemed invincible. (Bush 87-90)Queen Elizabeth was the most important patron of Elizabethan theater. Her influence was essential protecting the theatrical profession from puritan inspired prohibitions, and her court provided animportant source of income and prestige for leading London actingAccording to Boyce, Elizabe th was fond of William Shakespeares plays. She wasespecially pleased with Falstaff. She was so pleased that she commanded the play wrightto produce a play in which the fat knight falls in love; resulting in the play entitled TheMerry Wives of Windsor. Cranmers eulogy to Elizabeth in Henry VII, delivered by animportant English national hero, without a doubt reflects the nostalgia for her reign byEngland, a decade after her death. Elizabeths reign did not only influence theater, but itliterature as well as art and music(172)Elizabeth influenced the manner in which the court was programmed, mainlybecause of her personality. According to Rachum she had her way with people andpossessed a high sense of her own authority. She also knew how to take advantage of aparticular circumstance as a single women surrounded by men.(162) Court officials andguests frequently displayed coarse manners, even though 16th century court etiquette wascomplex and highly structured. The queen herself sometimes slapped her maids andoften swore; a habit that amused the retainers, and disgusted the clergy.(Bush 67) It wasmade clear through Elizabeth that she would not stand any disobedience, patterning herrule after her fathers model of absolute monarchy. Many people compared Elizabethsmethod of ruling like her fathers; but this did not discourage her.(Bush 37)Her prideful attitude perhaps influenced those that looked up to her or wereattracted to her. Elizabeths most famous qualities was her success in her policies, theglamour in her court and her longed preserved virginity. These qualities could of been theideal life style for those that idolized her.(Academic American Encyclopedia 141) Herphysical features(at that time)were outstanding, plus the fact that she was a proud womenemphasized these qualities even more. Elizabeth at twenty years of age, appeared to be inthe full bloom of her life. With a good figure, and her tall stature she moved with dignity. .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 , .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .postImageUrl , .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 , .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732:hover , .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732:visited , .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732:active { border:0!important; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732:active , .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732 .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua9dd4dd96c72eaf4de839da07a94d732:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Its Illegal to be Homeless EssayShe had an olive complexion and reddish brown hair. Her fine eyes and long elegantHands were just another striking feature.(Zamoyska 19)Her marriage decision not only influenced all the men that wanted to marry her,but it also influenced what the whole country thought about her. the most important issue of her first years of government was the onethat consistently evaded, namely her marriagepublic opinion disliked the image of theVirgin Queen. If she were to get married her personal choice would of been the earl ofLeicesterafter him she had many favorites(Rachum 162)Although her decision was not to get married, it does not mean that she did nothave any lovers. One rumor of a lover, was a man by the name of Robert Dudley; whoshe appointed as her master of horse. It was no doubt that Elizabeth was attracted to hisenergy, skill at conversation and athletic prowess. The way he organized courtentertainment delighted her. Soon enough Elizabeths behavior became a scandal.(Bush41-42) Although she had other men in her life, she prided the fact that all her life she wasa virgin, and died a virgin.(Academic American Encyclopedia 142)Even though her days were shortened little by little, the dying queen was still aninfluence of hope to her country. To a world she helped shape, Elizabeth made herfarewells, to an England whose affection she was sure.(Bush 105) At the old age ofseventy it marked the end for of this queens life; at the old age which was very rare todie. Especially at the time where disease and primitive medical practices doomed manyto an early death. Elizabeth like her father was a firm believer in physical as well asintellectual exercise, which may of contributed to her remarkable life spand. According to an observer: Elizabeths funeral was never forgotten bythose that witnessed itsuch a general sighing, groaning, and weeping as that hath notseen or known in the memory of man.(Bush 107)The Elizabethan age is most often associated with Queen Elizabeth I, whoinfluenced England greatly. Her influence on literature, drama, theater, and as a greatpolitical figure who cleverly manipulated and retained power dispite the obstacles,deserves credit for the great achievements during her reign. Bibliography:Elizabeth I, Queen of England Academic American Encyclopedia, 1987Boyce,Charles. Shakespeare A to Z. New York: Charles Boyce Roundtable PressInc. 1990Bush,Catherine. Elizabeth I. New York: Chelsea House Educational communications,Inc.1986Rachum,Ilan. The Renaissance: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. New York City: MayFlower Books Inc. 1979Zamoyska, Betka. Queen Elizabeth I: United States of America: Cameron TayleurBooks Ltd. 1981